"Buenos dias", "buenas noches" -- this was the first words in a foreign language I heard in my life, as a three-year old boy growing up in developing post-war Western Germany, where the first gastarbeiters had arrived from Spain. Fascinated by the strange sounds, I tried to get to know some more languages, the only opportunity being TV courses of English and French -- there was no foreign language education for pre-teen school children in Germany yet in those days. Read more
To find some answers Tim Machan explores the language's present and past, and looks ahead to its futures among the one and a half billion people who speak it. His search is fascinating and important, for definitions of English have influenced education and law in many countries and helped shape the identities of those who live in them.
This volume provides a new perspective on the evolution of the special language of medicine, based on the electronic corpus of Early Modern English Medical Texts, containing over two million words of medical writing from 1500 to 1700.
Tena Quichua (ISO 639-3: quw) belongs to the Quechuan language family, as part of the peripheral variety Quechua IIB (Torero 1964, Cerrón-Palomino 1987, Gordon 2005). It is spoken in the Eastern Amazonian region of Ecuador on the Napo River above the mouth of the Rio Coca, primarily on three tributaries: the Misahualli, the Arajuno, and the Ansuc. Tena Quichua is bounded on the North and East by Napo Quichua and on the South by Pastaza Quichua. Previous research on the division of Ecuadorian dialects is summarized by Carpenter (1984: 3–4). Although it is beyond the scope of this Illustration, we hope that our description of Tena Quichua will prove useful in future work on the relations between these three Amazonian dialects of Ecuadorian Quichua. Below, a brief summary of Tena dialect identification and formation is given, followed by a description of present-day bilingualism in the region and data collection procedures.