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Revitalizing Endangered Languages

Edited by Justyna Olko & Julia Sallabank

Revitalizing Endangered Languages "This guidebook provides ideas and strategies, as well as some background, to help with the effective revitalization of endangered languages. It covers a broad scope of themes including effective planning, benefits, wellbeing, economic aspects, attitudes and ideologies."

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Academic Paper

Title: Coding causal–noncausal verb alternations: A form–frequency correspondence explanation
Author: Martin Haspelmath
Email: click here TO access email
Institution: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology
Author: Andreea Simona Calude
Email: click here TO access email
Institution: University of Reading
Author: Michael Spagnol
Institution: University of Malta
Author: Heiko Narrog
Email: click here TO access email
Institution: Tohoku University
Author: Elíf Bamyaci
Institution: Universität Würzburg
Linguistic Field: Syntax; Text/Corpus Linguistics; Typology
Subject Language: English
Abstract: We propose, and provide corpus-based support for, a usage-based explanation for cross-linguistic trends in the coding of causal–noncausal verb pairs, such as raise/rise, break (tr.)/break (intr.). While English mostly uses the same verb form both for the causal and the noncausal sense (labile coding), most languages have extra coding for the causal verb (causative coding) and/or for the noncausal verb (anticausative coding). Causative and anticausative coding is not randomly distributed (Haspelmath 1993): Some verb meanings, such as ‘freeze’, ‘dry’ and ‘melt’, tend to be coded as causatives, while others, such as ‘break’, ‘open’ and ‘split’, tend to be coded as anticausatives. We propose an explanation of these coding tendencies on the basis of the form–frequency correspondence principle, which is a general efficiency principle that is responsible for many grammatical asymmetries, ultimately grounded in predictability of frequently expressed meanings. In corpus data from seven languages, we find that verb pairs for which the noncausal member is more frequent tend to be coded as anticausatives, while verb pairs for which the causal member is more frequent tend to be coded as causatives. Our approach implies that linguists should not rely on form–meaning parallelism when trying to explain cross-linguistic or language-particular patterns in this domain.


This article appears IN Journal of Linguistics Vol. 50, Issue 3.

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