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Revitalizing Endangered Languages

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Revitalizing Endangered Languages "This guidebook provides ideas and strategies, as well as some background, to help with the effective revitalization of endangered languages. It covers a broad scope of themes including effective planning, benefits, wellbeing, economic aspects, attitudes and ideologies."

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Academic Paper

Title: On Shakespeare, Syphilis and His Naughty Synonyms for Penis
Author: Sachi Sri Kantha
Email: click here TO access email
Institution: Gifu University
Linguistic Field: Ling & Literature
Subject Language: English
Abstract: Why did Shakespeare use so many naughty synonyms for penis in his plays? Shakespeare's canon of 38 plays was scanned for his word play for penis. Six broad types of naughty synonyms for penis can be categorized. These include: anatomy, sports, warfare, gardening and farming, domestic items and miscellaneous. 22 examples are offered from 16 plays namely, 'A Midsummer Night's Dream', 'Antony and Cleopatra', 'As You Like It', 'Cymbeline', 'Henry V', 'Henry VIII', 'Julius Caesar', 'King Lear', 'Love's Labour's Lost', 'Much Ado about Nothing', 'Othello', 'Romeo and Juliet', 'The Taming of the Shrew', 'The Two Gentlemen of Verona' and 'Troilus and Cressida'. I propose four reasons. (1) raging syphilis disease in Europe during the quarter century (1588-1611)in which these plays were written, (2) sheer dramatic entertainment for the peasant audience, (3) Shakespeare's linguistic creativity, and (4) Shakespeare's interest in sex-related metaphors. The Latin word'penis' came to be used in English only 77 years after Shakespeare's death. Shakespeare could have introduced 'penis' into his plays, because he did use many Latin words and phrases in his plays. The omission of 'penis' word among Shakespeare's canon cannot be explained by the playwright's lack of Latin knowledge.
Type: Individual Paper
Status: Completed
Publication Info: International Medical Journal (Tokyo), August 2016; vol.23, no.4, pp. 310-312.
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