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Revitalizing Endangered Languages

Edited by Justyna Olko & Julia Sallabank

Revitalizing Endangered Languages "This guidebook provides ideas and strategies, as well as some background, to help with the effective revitalization of endangered languages. It covers a broad scope of themes including effective planning, benefits, wellbeing, economic aspects, attitudes and ideologies."

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Academic Paper

Title: Leelo Keevallik, From Interaction to Grammar: Estonian finite verb forms in conversation
Author: Auli Auli
Institution: University of Helsinki
Linguistic Field: Not Applicable; Syntax
Subject Language: Estonian
Abstract: Leelo Keevallik, From interaction to grammar: Estonian
finite verb forms in conversation. Uppsala: Uppsala Universitet,
2003. Pp. 270. Hb $57.50.

This book – presented as a Ph. D. thesis at the University of Uppsala, Sweden – comprises analyses of eleven frequently occurring epistemic expressions in present-day spoken Estonian. The constitutive elements in these expressions are finite verb forms in any of the three persons – for example, ma arvan ‘I guess’, ütleme ‘let's say’, kule ‘listen!’, on ju ‘(it) is surely’. In addition to the verb form, which is either in the indicative or imperative
mood, there may be another element, typically a personal pronoun or verbal suffix (1st or 2nd person), and even a clitic particle (on+ ). Semantically, most of the verbs denote human cognition or speaking. An exception is the verb olla ‘to be’ (cf. on ju above).


This article appears IN Language in Society Vol. 35, Issue 3.

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