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Words in Time and Place: Exploring Language Through the Historical Thesaurus of the Oxford English Dictionary

By David Crystal

Offers a unique view of the English language and its development, and includes witty commentary and anecdotes along the way.


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The Indo-European Controversy: Facts and Fallacies in Historical Linguistics

By Asya Pereltsvaig and Martin W. Lewis

This book "asserts that the origin and spread of languages must be examined primarily through the time-tested techniques of linguistic analysis, rather than those of evolutionary biology" and "defends traditional practices in historical linguistics while remaining open to new techniques, including computational methods" and "will appeal to readers interested in world history and world geography."


Academic Paper


Title: The Development of Conceptual Fluency & Metaphorical Competence in L2 Learners
Author: Mohammad Reza Talebinezhad
Email: click here TO access email
Institution: University of Isfahan
Author: Mahmood Hashemian
Email: click here TO access email
Institution: University of Isfahan
Linguistic Field: Applied Linguistics
Abstract: Conceptual Fluency (CF) and Metaphorical Competence (MC) have interested many L2 researchers. Leading the front is Danesi (1992, 1995, 2003) who contends that metaphorical language cannot afford to be ignored by L2 curricula anymore. His push is to instill in L2 learners a more functional communicative competence. This article reports on a study to scrutinize the development of CF and MC in Persian students of English. First, a group of language students (95 freshmen, 92 sophomores, 139 juniors, and 90 seniors) were tested to see whether they were conceptually and metaphorically competent, and the results showed they were almost bereft of such a competence, and the analysis of their writings uncovered low metaphorical density. The findings corroborated Danesi’s (1992) claim: L2 learners do not necessarily develop CF and MC after several years of study. Then, the juniors partook in the study in which they were exposed to the metaphorical language of English. The posttest results were indicative that they had developed their CF and MC to a large extent, and their written discourse was almost as metaphorically dense as that of native speakers. The data revealed that it is possible to develop CF and MC in a classroom setting. Finally, the data indicated that there is a relationship between CF and MC. /L//L/Key words: conceptual fluency, metaphorical competence, conceptual metaphor,metaphorical density, verbal fluency
Type: Individual Paper
Status: Completed


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