Publishing Partner: Cambridge University Press CUP Extra Publisher Login

New from Cambridge University Press!

ad

Revitalizing Endangered Languages

Edited by Justyna Olko & Julia Sallabank

Revitalizing Endangered Languages "This guidebook provides ideas and strategies, as well as some background, to help with the effective revitalization of endangered languages. It covers a broad scope of themes including effective planning, benefits, wellbeing, economic aspects, attitudes and ideologies."


New from Wiley!

ad

We Have a New Site!

With the help of your donations we have been making good progress on designing and launching our new website! Check it out at https://linguistlist.org/!
***We are still in our beta stages for the new site--if you have any feedback, be sure to let us know at webdevlinguistlist.org***

Review of  African American Literacies


Reviewer: Don Edward Walicek
Book Title: African American Literacies
Book Author: Elaine B. Richardson
Publisher: Routledge (Taylor and Francis)
Linguistic Field(s): Ling & Literature
Subject Language(s): English
Issue Number: 14.2956

Discuss this Review
Help on Posting
Review:
DATE: SUN, 26 OCT 2003 23:42:34 +0000
FROM: DON WALICEK
SUBJECT: AFRICAN AMERICAN LITERACIES

RICHARDSON, ELAINE (2003) AFRICAN AMERICAN LITERACIES, ROUTLEDGE,
LITERACIES SERIES.

DON E. WALICEK, THE UNIVERSITY OF PUERTO RICO AT RIO PIEDRAS

PURPOSE / CONTENT: THIS BOOK OFFERS A CRITICAL ACCOUNT OF THE LANGUAGE
AND LITERACY PRACTICES OF AFRICAN AMERICAN STUDENTS. IN IT RICHARDSON
SHOWS THAT CURRENT PEDAGOGICAL THEORY AND INSTITUTIONALIZED PRACTICES
CONSISTENTLY FALL SHORT OF VALUING AND FULLY UNDERSTANDING THE CULTURAL
AND HISTORICAL EXPERIENCE OF AFRICAN AMERICANS. THIS PREDICAMENT, ARGUES
THE AUTHOR, HAS LED TO UNETHICAL EDUCATIONAL PRACTICES AND STUDENT
UNDERACHIEVEMENT. RESPONDING TO THIS CRISIS, SHE CALLS FOR CHANGES IN
LITERACY EDUCATION. HER ANALYSIS PULLS FROM RESEARCH IN
SOCIOLINGUISTICS, COMMUNICATION STUDIES, AND EDUCATION. IT WILL BE OF
INTEREST TO EDUCATORS, SOCIOLINGUISTS, AND, MORE BROADLY, READERS WITH AN
INTEREST IN AFRICAN AMERICAN VERNACULAR ENGLISH (AAVE), CURRICULUM
DESIGN, AND VERNACULAR EXPRESSIVE ARTS. THE BOOK CONSISTS OF AN
INTRODUCTION, SIX CHAPTERS, A LENGTHY BIBLIOGRAPHY, AND AN INDEX.

OVERVIEW: THE FIRST CHAPTER, "LITERACY, LANGUAGE, COMPOSITION, RHETORIC
AND (NOT) THE AFRICAN AMERICAN STUDENT," EXAMINES SOME OF THE SOCIAL
PRACTICES AND IDEOLOGIES THAT INFORM THE HISTORY OF AFRICAN AMERICAN
EDUCATION IN THE UNITED STATES. RICHARDSON SEES HER RESEARCH AS A
CONTRIBUTION TO THE CONSTRUCTION OF A MULTICULTURAL AMERICA. SHE WRITES,
"I USE THE TERM MULTICULTURAL TO SIGNIFY EQUAL OPPORTUNITY BEYOND THE
POINT OF ALLOWING PEOPLE OF COLOR ACCESS TO HISTORICALLY WHITE
INSTITUTIONS" (8). WHILE HER PARTICULAR FOCUS IS AFRICAN AMERICANS, SHE
ENDORSES AND ENCOURAGES ATTENTION TO A VARIETY OF CULTURES AND
MARGINALIZED GROUPS (ASIAN, BLACK, LATINO/A, NATIVE AMERICAN). SUCH
PROJECTS, RICHARDSON ARGUES, DEMAND THAT THE PRODUCTION OF KNOWLEDGE BE
CRITIQUED AND EXPANDED.

CHAPTER ONE ALSO INTRODUCES ONE OF THE MAIN POINTS OF THE TEXT: THAT
WHITE SUPREMACY, CAPITALISM, AND RELATED DISCOURSES OF AMERICAN
MERITOCRACY INFORM THE LITERACY PRACTICES OF EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS AND
CONTRIBUTE TO THE UNDERACHIEVEMENT OF AFRICAN AMERICANS. THE AUTHOR
RELATES LANGUAGE TEACHING PRACTICES TO RACISM BY REVIEWING A SUBSTANTIAL
AMOUNT OF LITERATURE (I.E., SMITHERMAN 2000, FINE 1995, RICKFORD 1998,
AND WOODSON 1990) WHICH SHOWS THAT MANY NON-WHITE STUDENTS SEE NARROW,
CULTURALLY-BIASED APPROACHES TO LANGUAGE AS AN ATTEMPT TO ERASE THEM
CULTURALLY. SHE CONSIDERS THE TEACHING OF STANDARDIZED ENGLISH VOID OF
DISCUSSIONS OF SOCIAL CONTEXT, POLITICS, CULTURE, AND POWER AN EXAMPLE OF
THIS PROCESS AT WORK. CONFRONTING THIS AND RELATED PROBLEMS, SHE HOLDS,
DEMANDS THAT AFRICAN AMERICAN STUDENTS STUDY AND USE AAVE IN THE
CLASSROOM. DOING SO, RICHARDSON ARGUES, ENABLES EDUCATORS AND STUDENTS
ALIKE TO COMBAT MORE EFFECTIVELY THE PERPETUATION OF SOCIAL
STRATIFICATION ON THE BASIS OF RACE.

THE SECOND CHAPTER, ENTITLED, "THE LITERACIES OF AFRICAN
AMERICAN-CENTERED RHETORIC AND COMPOSITION: FREESTYLIN' OR 'LOOKIN' FOR
A STYLE THAT'S FREE'," MAPS THE DEVELOPMENT OF AFRICAN AMERICAN
LITERACIES AND RHETORICAL PRACTICES. IT PROVIDES AN ANALYSIS OF
LITERATURE, FOLKLORE, VERNACULAR EXPRESSION (E.G., CHILDHOOD RHYMES,
GOSPEL, 'SHUCKIN' AND JIVIN'). THE CHAPTER'S SCOPE IS EXPANSIVE,
COVERING THE PERIODS OF SLAVERY, RECONSTRUCTION, JIM CROW, THE HARLEM
RENAISSANCE, THE CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENT, THE BLACK POWER MOVEMENT, AND THE
CONTEMPORARY ERA OF HIP HOP. RICHARDSON POINTS OUT THAT THESE HISTORICAL
EVENTS HAVE MORE IN COMMON THAN WE MIGHT THINK. SHE NOTES THAT IN EACH
WRITERS, PERFORMERS, AND ARTISTS, WHETHER 'COMMON FOLK' OR "EXPERTS IN
THEIR RESPECTIVE AREAS, CHALLENGE AND COPE WITH HIERARCHICAL POWER
RELATIONS SHAPED BY THE LEGACY OF THE ATLANTIC SLAVE TRADE. HER
PARTICULAR INTEREST IS THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THESE RESPONSES AND
LITERACY. CHAPTER THREE CONTINUES IN A SIMILAR FASHION BUT FOCUSES ON
PROVIDING A SKETCH OF SPECIFIC FEMALE CONTRIBUTIONS TO AFRICAN AMERICAN
LITERACIES.

THE FOURTH CHAPTER HAS TWO PRIMARY GOALS. FIRST, IT DISCUSSES
THEORETICAL INFLUENCES ON RICHARDSON'S UNDERSTANDING OF NOTIONS OF
AFRICAN AMERICAN-CENTERED LITERACIES. SECOND, IT ASKS WHETHER THE
TEACHING METHODOLOGIES SHE PROPOSES ACTUALLY WORK. IN DESCRIBING ONE
PARTICULAR STUDY HIGHLIGHTED IN THIS CHAPTER, THE AUTHOR EXPLAINS THAT AS
MOST OF HER STUDENTS WERE AFRICAN AMERICAN, SHE DEVELOPED AN AFRICAN
AMERICAN-CENTERED COMPOSITION THEORY FOR THEIR COURSES. SHE BASED HER
APPROACH ON FOUR OBSERVATIONS: (1) FORM AND CONTENT ARE INEXTRICABLY
BOUND, (2) BLACK DISCOURSE IS AN ACADEMIC DISCOURSE IN CONSTANT FLUX, (3)
CONTRASTIVE ANALYSIS OF AAVE AND STANDARD ENGLISH WILL IMPROVE STUDENTS'
CRITICAL LANGUAGE FACILITIES, AND (4) CULTURAL AND CRITICAL AWARENESS CAN
BE REALIZED IN WRITING AND DISCOURSE USING FEATURES THAT HAVE ARISEN IN
THE AFRICAN AMERICAN HISTORICAL EXPERIENCE. RICHARDSON TESTS THE
EFFECTIVENESS OF THE CURRICULUM BY EVALUATING WHETHER THE COMPOSITION
SKILLS OF HER STUDENTS IMPRMPROVEDD OVER TIME. HER FINDINGS INDICATE THAT
WRITTEN FLUENCY IMPROVED DUE TO EXPOSURE TO HER CURRICULUM. SHE SUPPORTS
THIS CONCLUSION BY PRESENTING DATA FROM THESE RHETORIC AND COMPOSITION
COURSES. INCLUDED ARE EXAMPLES OF ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED IN THE CLASSROOM,
WRITING PROMPTS, ANALYSES OF AAVE SYNTAX, AND STUDENTS' COMMENTS
COLLECTED AT THE END OF THE COURSE.

RICHARDSON'S TEACHING IS ALSO DISCUSSED IN CHAPTER FIVE. THE FOCUS HERE
ARE ANOTHER SET OF CLASSES CENTERING ON RHETORIC AND DISCOURSE, WITH AN
EMPHASIS ON PRODUCTION. ADDITIONALLY, THE AUTHOR OFFERS A DETAILED
DESCRIPTION OF HER TEACHING METHODOLOGY. THE CHAPTER INCLUDES SEVERAL
EXAMPLES OF STUDENT WRITING AND RICHARDSON'S COMMENTS ON EACH ONE. IN
THESE CLASSES SOME STUDENTS SOUGHT PUBLISHERS FOR PAPERS IN WHICH THEY
USED AAVE DISCOURSE WHILE OTHERS USED WRITTEN AAVE IN DEVELOPING WEB
PAGES FOR COMMUNITY ORGANIZATIONS. THE AUTHOR POINTS OUT THAT THESE
ASSIGNMENTS PROVED USEFUL FOR STUDENTS BECAUSE THEY REVEALED DIFFERENCES
BETWEEN PUBLIC AND PRIVATE DISCOURSE. THE TEXT'S FINAL CHAPTER,
"DUKIN' IT OUT WITH 'THE POWERS THAT BE,' COVERS SOME OF THE PROBLEMS
AND CHALLENGES THAT THE AUTHOR EXPERIENCED TEACHING AFRICAN
AMERICAN-CENTERED CURRICULA.

EVALUATION: THIS IS AN ENJOYABLE BOOK THAT OFFERS A FRESH PERSPECTIVE ON
QUESTIONS ABOUT AFRICAN AMERICAN LITERACIES. PERHAPS ITS MOST STRIKING
STRENGTH IS THE AUTHOR'S HIGHLY PERSONAL APPROACH. RICHARDSON INCLUDES
MANY PERSONAL ANECDOTES AND SUCCESSFULLY WEAVES THESE INTO DISCUSSIONS OF
THE TOPICS MENTIONED ABOVE. HER TEXT CAN BE SEEN AS AN EXAMPLE OF
'REFLEXIVE SCHOLARSHIP' (BOURDIEU 1980/1980) AND AS INVITATION FOR
LINGUISTS AND OTHERS INTERESTED IN LANGUAGE TO ENGAGE IN THIS SORT OF
WORK. ANOTHER RELATED STRENGTH OF THE BOOK IS ITS ATTENTION TO POPULAR
CULTURE AND THE AUTHOR'S INSIGHTFUL DISCUSSION OF THESE FORMS WITH
RESPECT TO LITERACY.

MY MAIN CRITICISM OF THE BOOK CONCERNS ORGANIZATION AND CLARITY. I FOUND
THAT THE AUTHOR HAS A TENDENCY TO BE REPETITIOUS IN HER REVIEW OF
LITERATURE THAT RELATES TO HER RESEARCH (E.G., FREIRE 1990, GIROUX 1991,
SMITHERMAN 2000). CURRENTLY THESE REFERENCES EXTEND INTO THE FOURTH
CHAPTER BUT COULD, I SUGGEST, BE LIMITED TO TWO CHAPTERS. THOUGH THESE
REFERENCES TYPICALLY RELATE TO THE TOPIC AT HAND, THEY OFTEN ADDRESS
POINTS THAT HAVE ALREADY BEEN DISCUSSED. THIS TAKES AWAY FROM THE
BOOK'S COHERENCY AS A WHOLE, MAKING IT SEEM AS IF THE CHAPTERS WERE
MEANT TO BE READ AS INDIVIDUAL UNITS.

THE FINAL CRITICISM TO BE MENTIONED HERE CONCERNS KEY CONCEPTS AND
PHRASES IN THE TEXT. THESE ARE NUMEROUS: 'AFRICAN AMERICAN
LITERACIES', 'THE BLACK VOICE', 'AFRICAN AMERICAN WAYS OF KNOWING,'
'SIGNIFYIN(G),' 'SURVIVAL LITERACIES,' AND 'AFRICAN AMERICAN
DISCOURSE AND RHETORIC.' WHAT IS LACKING, AND ESPECIALLY IMPORTANT IN
THE MORE THEORETICAL PARTS OF THE TEXT, IS A SYSTEMATIC MEANS FOR THE
READER TO RELATE THESE ONE TO THE OTHERS. USUALLY I HAD SOME IDEA OF
WHAT THESE TERMS MEANT, BUT SELDOM WAS THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THEM
DEFINED PRECISELY. MOREOVER, IT WOULD BE HELPFUL IF WHAT THE AUTHOR
MEANS BY 'LITERACY' AND 'LITERACIES,' PERHAPS THE MOST IMPORTANT
WORDS IN THE BOOK, WAS DEFINED IN THE BEGINNING OF THE TEXT AND THEN
BUILT UPON IN LATER DISCUSSION.

OVERALL THE BOOK MAKES A VALUABLE CONTRIBUTION TO STUDIES FOCUSED ON THE
USE OF AAVE IN THE CLASSROOM. ESPECIALLY NOTEWORTHY IS THE AUTHOR'S
PRESENTATION AND EXPLANATION OF THE CRITICAL PEDAGOGY THAT SHE DEVELOPED
DURING HER WORK AS AN EDUCATOR. HER APPROACH SHOWS READERS THAT THE
PROBLEM OF EDUCATIONAL UNDERACHIEVEMENT IN THE UNITED STATES CAN BE
SOLVED ONLY IF THE SOCIOHISTORICAL AND POLITICAL CONTEXTS OF LANGUAGE
EDUCATION ARE CONSIDERED. RICHARDSON'S WORK STANDS OUT BECAUSE IT
OFFERS SOLUTIONS IN THE FORMS OF USEFUL CONCEPTS AND STRATEGIES, ONES
THAT READERS CAN ADAPT AND DISCUSS FOR WITH THEIR OWN STUDENTS.

REFERENCES
BOURDIEU, P. 1980/1990. THE LOGIC OF PRACTICE. STANFORD: STANFORD
UNIVERSITY PRESS.

FARR, M. AND DANIELS, H. 1998. LANGUAGE DIVERSITY AND WRITING
INSTRUCTION. NEW YORK: ERIC CLEARINGHOUSE ON URBAN EDUCATION INSTITUTE
FOR URBAN AND MINORITY EDUCATION AND NCTE.

FINE, M. 1995. SILENCING AND LITERACY. IN GADSEN, V. AND WAGNER, D.
(EDS) LITERACY AMONG AFRICAN-AMERICAN YOUTH: ISSUES IN LEARNING,
TEACHING, AND SCHOOLING. CRESKILL, NJ: HAMPTON PRESS, PP. 201-22.

FREIRE, P. 1990. PEDAGOGY OF THE OPPRESSED. NEW YORK: CONTINUUM.

GIROUX, H. 1991. INTRODUCTION: LITERACY, DIFFERENCE, AND THE POLITICS
OF BORDER CROSSING. IN MITCHELL, C. AND WEILER, K (EDS) REWRITING
LITERACY. NEW YORK: BERGIN AND GARVEY.

RICKFORD, J. 1998. USING THE VERNACULAR TO TEACH THE STANDARD. IN
RICKFORD, J. AFRICAN AMERICAN VERNACULAR ENGLISH: FEATURES, EVOLUTION,
EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS. MALDEN, MA: BLACKWELL PUBLISHERS.

SMITHERMAN, G. 2000. TALKIN' THAT TALK: LANGUAGE, CULTURE, AND
EDUCATION IN AFRICA AMERICA. NEW YORK: ROUTLEDGE.

WOODSON, C 1990/1933. THE EDUCATION OF THE NEGRO PRIOR TO 1861.
WASHINGTON D.C.: ASSOCIATED PUBLISHERS; FIRST EDITION, BROOKLYN, NY: A.
AND B. PUBLISHERS.





ROVED OVER TIME. HER FINDINGS INDICATE THAT
WRITTEN FLUENCY IMPROVED DUE TO EXPOSURE TO HER CURRICULUM. SHE SUPPORTS
THIS CONCLUSION BY PRESENTING DATA FROM THESE RHETORIC AND COMPOSITION
COURSES. INCLUDED ARE EXAMPLES OF ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED IN THE CLASSROOM,
WRITING PROMPTS, ANALYSES OF AAVE SYNTAX, AND STUDENTS' COMMENTS
COLLECTED AT THE END OF THE COURSE.

RICHARDSON'S TEACHING IS ALSO DISCUSSED IN CHAPTER FIVE. THE FOCUS HERE
ARE ANOTHER SET OF CLASSES CENTERING ON RHETORIC AND DISCOURSE, WITH AN
EMPHASIS ON PRODUCTION. ADDITIONALLY, THE AUTHOR OFFERS A DETAILED
DESCRIPTION OF HER TEACHING METHODOLOGY. THE CHAPTER INCLUDES SEVERAL
EXAMPLES OF STUDENT WRITING AND RICHARDSON'S COMMENTS ON EACH ONE. IN
THESE CLASSES SOME STUDENTS SOUGHT PUBLISHERS FOR PAPERS IN WHICH THEY
USED AAVE DISCOURSE WHILE OTHERS USED WRITTEN AAVE IN DEVELOPING WEB
PAGES FOR COMMUNITY ORGANIZATIONS. THE AUTHOR POINTS OUT THAT THESE
ASSIGNMENTS PROVED USEFUL FOR STUDENTS BECAUSE THEY REVEALED DIFFERENCES
BETWEEN PUBLIC AND PRIVATE DISCOURSE. THE TEXT'S FINAL CHAPTER,
"DUKIN' IT OUT WITH 'THE POWERS THAT BE,' COVERS SOME OF THE PROBLEMS
AND CHALLENGES THAT THE AUTHOR EXPERIENCED TEACHING AFRICAN
AMERICAN-CENTERED CURRICULA.

EVALUATION: THIS IS AN ENJOYABLE BOOK THAT OFFERS A FRESH PERSPECTIVE ON
QUESTIONS ABOUT AFRICAN AMERICAN LITERACIES. PERHAPS ITS MOST STRIKING
STRENGTH IS THE AUTHOR'S HIGHLY PERSONAL APPROACH. RICHARDSON INCLUDES
MANY PERSONAL ANECDOTES AND SUCCESSFULLY WEAVES THESE INTO DISCUSSIONS OF
THE TOPICS MENTIONED ABOVE. HER TEXT CAN BE SEEN AS AN EXAMPLE OF
'REFLEXIVE SCHOLARSHIP' (BOURDIEU 1980/1980) AND AS INVITATION FOR
LINGUISTS AND OTHERS INTERESTED IN LANGUAGE TO ENGAGE IN THIS SORT OF
WORK. ANOTHER RELATED STRENGTH OF THE BOOK IS ITS ATTENTION TO POPULAR
CULTURE AND THE AUTHOR'S INSIGHTFUL DISCUSSION OF THESE FORMS WITH
RESPECT TO LITERACY.

MY MAIN CRITICISM OF THE BOOK CONCERNS ORGANIZATION AND CLARITY. I FOUND
THAT THE AUTHOR HAS A TENDENCY TO BE REPETITIOUS IN HER REVIEW OF
LITERATURE THAT RELATES TO HER RESEARCH (E.G., FREIRE 1990, GIROUX 1991,
SMITHERMAN 2000). CURRENTLY THESE REFERENCES EXTEND INTO THE FOURTH
CHAPTER BUT COULD, I SUGGEST, BE LIMITED TO TWO CHAPTERS. THOUGH THESE
REFERENCES TYPICALLY RELATE TO THE TOPIC AT HAND, THEY OFTEN ADDRESS
POINTS THAT HAVE ALREADY BEEN DISCUSSED. THIS TAKES AWAY FROM THE
BOOK'S COHERENCY AS A WHOLE, MAKING IT SEEM AS IF THE CHAPTERS WERE
MEANT TO BE READ AS INDIVIDUAL UNITS.

THE FINAL CRITICISM TO BE MENTIONED HERE CONCERNS KEY CONCEPTS AND
PHRASES IN THE TEXT. THESE ARE NUMEROUS: 'AFRICAN AMERICAN
LITERACIES', 'THE BLACK VOICE', 'AFRICAN AMERICAN WAYS OF KNOWING,'
'SIGNIFYIN(G),' 'SURVIVAL LITERACIES,' AND 'AFRICAN AMERICAN
DISCOURSE AND RHETORIC.' WHAT IS LACKING, AND ESPECIALLY IMPORTANT IN
THE MORE THEORETICAL PARTS OF THE TEXT, IS A SYSTEMATIC MEANS FOR THE
READER TO RELATE THESE ONE TO THE OTHERS. USUALLY I HAD SOME IDEA OF
WHAT THESE TERMS MEANT, BUT SELDOM WAS THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THEM
DEFINED PRECISELY. MOREOVER, IT WOULD BE HELPFUL IF WHAT THE AUTHOR
MEANS BY 'LITERACY' AND 'LITERACIES,' PERHAPS THE MOST IMPORTANT
WORDS IN THE BOOK, WAS DEFINED IN THE BEGINNING OF THE TEXT AND THEN
BUILT UPON IN LATER DISCUSSION.

OVERALL THE BOOK MAKES A VALUABLE CONTRIBUTION TO STUDIES FOCUSED ON THE
USE OF AAVE IN THE CLASSROOM. ESPECIALLY NOTEWORTHY IS THE AUTHOR'S
PRESENTATION AND EXPLANATION OF THE CRITICAL PEDAGOGY THAT SHE DEVELOPED
DURING HER WORK AS AN EDUCATOR. HER APPROACH SHOWS READERS THAT THE
PROBLEM OF EDUCATIONAL UNDERACHIEVEMENT IN THE UNITED STATES CAN BE
SOLVED ONLY IF THE SOCIOHISTORICAL AND POLITICAL CONTEXTS OF LANGUAGE
EDUCATION ARE CONSIDERED. RICHARDSON'S WORK STANDS OUT BECAUSE IT
OFFERS SOLUTIONS IN THE FORMS OF USEFUL CONCEPTS AND STRATEGIES, ONES
THAT READERS CAN ADAPT AND DISCUSS FOR WITH THEIR OWN STUDENTS.

REFERENCES
BOURDIEU, P. 1980/1990. THE LOGIC OF PRACTICE. STANFORD: STANFORD
UNIVERSITY PRESS.

FARR, M. AND DANIELS, H. 1998. LANGUAGE DIVERSITY AND WRITING
INSTRUCTION. NEW YORK: ERIC CLEARINGHOUSE ON URBAN EDUCATION INSTITUTE
FOR URBAN AND MINORITY EDUCATION AND NCTE.

FINE, M. 1995. SILENCING AND LITERACY. IN GADSEN, V. AND WAGNER, D.
(EDS) LITERACY AMONG AFRICAN-AMERICAN YOUTH: ISSUES IN LEARNING,
TEACHING, AND SCHOOLING. CRESKILL, NJ: HAMPTON PRESS, PP. 201-22.

FREIRE, P. 1990. PEDAGOGY OF THE OPPRESSED. NEW YORK: CONTINUUM.

GIROUX, H. 1991. INTRODUCTION: LITERACY, DIFFERENCE, AND THE POLITICS
OF BORDER CROSSING. IN MITCHELL, C. AND WEILER, K (EDS) REWRITING
LITERACY. NEW YORK: BERGIN AND GARVEY.

RICKFORD, J. 1998. USING THE VERNACULAR TO TEACH THE STANDARD. IN
RICKFORD, J. AFRICAN AMERICAN VERNACULAR ENGLISH: FEATURES, EVOLUTION,
EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS. MALDEN, MA: BLACKWELL PUBLISHERS.

SMITHERMAN, G. 2000. TALKIN' THAT TALK: LANGUAGE, CULTURE, AND
EDUCATION IN AFRICA AMERICA. NEW YORK: ROUTLEDGE.

WOODSON, C 1990/1933. THE EDUCATION OF THE NEGRO PRIOR TO 1861.
WASHINGTON D.C.: ASSOCIATED PUBLISHERS; FIRST EDITION, BROOKLYN, NY: A.
AND B. PUBLISHERS.
 
ABOUT THE REVIEWER:
ABOUT THE REVIEWER
Don E. Walicek is a doctoral student in the Department of English at the
University of Puerto Rico, Río Piedras, where he specializes in the study
of Creole languages of the Caribbean. His general area of concentration
within linguistics is sociolinguistics. He has related interests in the
study of race, critical theory, and postcolonial studies. He completed his
B.A. in Social Anthropology and his M.A. in Social Anthropology and History,
both at the University of Texas at Austin.