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Review of  Semantics

Reviewer: Sylvia L.R. Schreiner
Book Title: Semantics
Book Author: Claudia Maienborn Klaus von Heusinger Paul H Portner
Publisher: De Gruyter Mouton
Linguistic Field(s): Semantics
Cognitive Science
Issue Number: 23.2292

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EDITORS: Maienborn, Claudia, Klaus von Heusinger & Paul H. Portner
TITLE: Semantics
SUBTITLE: An International Handbook of Natural Language Meaning, Volume 1
SERIES TITLE: Handbooks of Linguistics and Communication Science / [HSK] 33/1
PUBLISHER: De Gruyter Mouton
YEAR: 2011

Sylvia L. Reed, Department of Linguistics, University of Arizona

''Semantics: An International Handbook of Natural Language Meaning, Volume 1'' is
the first volume of a three-volume handbook of semantics. This volume contains
the following sections: I. Foundations of semantics, II. History of semantics,
III. Methods in semantic research, IV. Lexical semantics, V. Ambiguity and
vagueness, VI. Cognitively oriented approaches to semantics, VII. Theories of
sentence semantics, and VIII. Theories of discourse semantics. The stated goals
are to ''discuss the foundations and methodology of semantics,'' ''introduce
important theoretical frameworks and theoretical issues,'' ''cover a wide variety
of specific topics and phenomena of natural language meaning,'' and ''explore the
relationship between semantics and other fields, both within linguistics and
outside'' (vii).

Seven chapters on the foundations of semantics comprise the first section:
''Meaning in linguistics'' (chapter 1, Claudia Maienborn, Klaus von Heusinger, and
Paul Portner), ''Meaning, intentionality and communication'' (chapter 2, Pierre
Jacob), ''(Frege on) Sense and reference'' (chapter 3, Mark Textor), ''Reference:
Foundational issues'' (chapter 4, Barbara Abbott), ''Meaning in Language Use''
(chapter 5, Georgia Green), ''Compositionality'' (chapter 6, Peter Pagin and Dag
Westerståhl), and ''Lexical decomposition: Foundational Issues'' (chapter 7,
Stefan Engelberg).

Maienborn, von Heusinger, and Portner introduce the main concepts, methods, and
goals of modern semantics by discussing three central issues: truth conditions,
compositionality, and context and discourse. They distinguish linguistic
semantics from other approaches to meaning, and show how these features are
instantiated in the three central issues they address. Jacob examines early
contributions to questions of communication and pragmatics. He addresses the
lasting effect of Brentano (1874), and mentions several later approaches to
intentionality. He also discusses early theories of speech acts/pragmatics, and
examines Grice's (1957 and forward) movement towards an inferential model of
communication and a discussion of truth-conditional pragmatics. Textor takes the
reader through Frege's motivation for the distinction between sense and
reference, and the various approaches in Frege’s works. He also discusses what
this distinction means for predicates and sentences, and traces the path from
Frege's ideas to significant contributions in modern semantics. Abbot takes into
consideration several issues central to the theory of reference. She reviews
direct reference theory and its failures, Frege's (1892) concepts of sense and
reference, and Russell's (1905) theory of definite descriptions. She also
considers objections to Russell's theory of definite descriptions, Kaplan's
(1989) theory of demonstratives and indexicals, and Kripke's (1972) return to
Mill's nondescriptional theory of proper names. Green moves to discuss the use
of language, reviewing some major concepts in foundational pragmatics:
Bar-Hillel's (1954) work on indexicals and Grice (1957, 1975). She then
discusses some implications of Grice's theory for our understanding of word
meaning, and closes with work on disambiguation and on the modeling of pragmatic
information. Pagin and Westerståhl first give historical background for the
principle of compositionality, then present an algebra for composition in syntax
and semantics. They describe arguments for and against compositionality in
natural language, and lastly consider possible problems for compositionality and
propose some solutions. Engelberg covers the basic motivations behind
decomposition, and then reviews the major phenomena that decomposition is said
to explain. He gives a brief history of interest in and study of decomposition,
followed by a collection of areas of empirical weakness. Finally, he looks at
several major theoretical issues surrounding decomposition.

The next section contains four chapters on the history of semantics: ''Meaning in
pre-19th century thought'' (chapter 8, Stephan Meier-Oeser), ''The emergence of
linguistic semantics in the 19th and early 20th century'' (chapter 9, Brigitte
Nerlich), ''The influence of logic on semantics'' (chapter 10, Albert Newen and
Bernhard Schröder), and ''Formal semantics and representationalism'' (chapter 11,
Ruth Kempson). Meier-Oeser considers theories of meaning in the western
tradition from antiquity to the 19th century, including the contributions of
Plato, Aristotle, the Stoics, Augustinus, Boethius, Abelard, Bacon, Hobbes, the
Port-Royal Grammarians, Locke, Leibniz, and Condillac. He also discusses several
major concepts of meaning and how they have been approached, including the
'significatio', the proposition, suppositions, speculative grammar,
comprehension vs. extension, and symbolic knowledge. Nerlich traces the
beginnings of linguistic semantics from the 19th through the early 20th century.
She gives a picture of the emergence of the study of semantics from its roots in
Germany, France, and Great Britain. She discusses, in turn, the traditions of
semantics in each: in Germany especially Reisig, Steinthal, and Paul; in France
Bréal, Littré, and Darmesteter; and in Britain Locke, Trench, Tooke, Stewart,
and Smart. Newen and Schröder examine the importance of logic to the development
of modern linguistic semantics, and of semantics to the tools of logic. Their
discussion includes descriptions of the main contributions of pre-Fregeans
Aristotle, Leibniz, and Abelard; of Frege's predicate logic, Russell's work on
types and definite descriptions, Carnap's ideas about possible worlds, and
Quine's contributions to our understanding of propositional attitudes. They then
discuss type theory, generalized quantifiers, intensions and types, and anaphora
and Dynamic Predicate Logic. Kempson reviews the development of semantics during
and after the shift to a concern for formally characterizing the grammars of
natural language. She surveys the changing goals and understandings of
representationalist accounts. She introduces some concepts of logic that formal
semantics was built upon. She describes the responses to the issues of context
dependence presented by dynamic semantics, then the contributions of proof
theory to semanticists' efforts. Finally she presents some tools from Dynamic
Syntax and shows how they may be used to represent and understand meaning
building in language.

The next section, ''Methods in semantic research,'' includes four chapters:
''Varieties of semantic evidence'' (chapter 12, Manfred Krifka), ''Methods in
cross-linguistic semantics (chapter 13, Lisa Matthewson), ''Formal methods in
semantics'' (chapter 14, Alice G.B. ter Meulen, and ''The application of
experimental methods in semantics'' (chapter 15, Oliver Bott, Sam Featherston,
Janina Radó, and Britta Stolterfoht). Krifka treats the types of evidence
semanticists have for meanings in language -- how meaning is reflected in
observable ways. Krifka first discusses a few ideas of (whether and) how we know
that meaning exists, and how we can access and discuss it. He explores
techniques for eliciting and dealing with meaning in semantic fieldwork (widely
construed), then reviews some major behavioral effects found in semantic
processing, and a few known effects on physiology brought out by such
processing. Finally, he briefly discusses methods that use corpora.Matthewson
takes up studying semantics cross-linguistically, with emphasis on discovering
semantic universals and parameters. She discusses major strategies for obtaining
semantic data. Next she considers what it means to be a semantic universal for
typologists and semanticists, and the examines the concept of abstractness in
universals. Then she looks at how to find semantic universals and surveys some
proposed universals. She concludes with discussion of (restrictions on)
variation in cross-linguistic semantics. Ter Meulen surveys ways in which formal
methods have been used to understand meaning in natural language. She discusses
first order logic, proofs and the components of formal systems, semantic models
and validity, and possibilities for combining proof-theoretic and
model-theoretic analyses. She then looks at some examples of formal methods that
have been applied to the study of linguistic semantics, followed by examples of
semantic methods developed for first order logic. Bott, Featherston, Radó, and
Stolterfoht argue that experimental methods and evidence gathered from them can
inform our understanding of meaning and our theories about it. The authors first
discuss the major ''stumbling blocks'' to experimental work in semantics, and
illustrate several experimental methods with questions about quantifier scope.
They conclude that semantics can benefit greatly from further experimental evidence.

The next section contains seven chapters focusing on lexical semantics:
''Semantic features and primes'' (chapter 16, Manfred Bierwisch), ''Frameworks of
lexical decomposition of verbs'' (chapter 17, Stefan Engelberg), ''Thematic roles''
(chapter 18, Anthony R. Davis), ''Lexical Conceptual Structure'' (chapter 19, Beth
Levin and Malka Rappaport Hovav), ''Idioms and collocations'' (chapter 20,
Christiane Fellbaum), ''Sense relations'' (chapter 21, Ronnie Cann), and ''Dual
oppositions in lexical meaning'' (chapter 22, Sebastian Löbner). Bierwisch's
chapter on semantic features and primes distinguishes three types of primes. He
begins with background assumptions behind the concepts, then discusses possible
forms for semantic features. He discusses the types that we must have for
primitives, and discusses the interpretation and interpretability of various
kinds of features. Engelberg traces the development of theories of lexical
decomposition through various frameworks, considering their origins, basic
ideas, explanatory power, and impact. He reviews Generative Semantics, Dowty's
theory of Montague Semantics (Dowty 1972) and Jackendoff's (1983) 'Conceptual
Semantics'. Then he looks at Lexical Conceptual Structure decompositions before
turning to a discussion of the Event Structure Theory of Pustejovsky (1988),
Two-level-Semantics (the work of Bierwisch, Lang, and Wunderlich), and Natural
Semantic Metalanguage (Wierzbicka and Goddard). Finally he turns to Hale &
Keyser's (1993) Lexical Relational Structures, and lastly Distributed Morphology
(Halle & Marantz 1993). Davis' chapter on thematic roles considers the way
thematic roles have been defined in model-theoretic semantics. He discusses the
idea of 'thematic role uniqueness' and the debate about how broad or
fine-grained thematic roles should be. He also reviews inventories and
hierarchies proposed for thematic roles, presents examples of analyses using
structures or features, and considers approaches to argument realization. Levin
and Rappaport Hovav discuss Lexical Conceptual Structure, describing how LCSs
came into linguistic theory and the components of LCSs. They examine the issue
of deciding on semantic primitives, and illustrate arguments for particular
(sets of) primitives. They also discuss more recent lines of research on event
structure that assume subevents in decompositions of predicates. Fellbaum
discusses several issues surrounding idioms and collocations, bringing in corpus
data from English and German. She draws a distinction between 'collocation',
'collocations', and 'idioms', and then discusses various properties of idioms.
Then she briefly discusses idioms as constructions, how idioms change
diachronically, and what we have learned about idioms through psycholinguistic
research. Cann examines the major sense relations and their connections to
theories of word meaning. He distinguishes between paradigmatic relations and
syntagmatic relations, and defines and discusses hyponomy, synonymy, antonymy,
and meronymy. Then he looks at syntagmatic relations, found in idioms and
grammatical but nonsensical sentences, and considers how these relations lead to
better understanding of word meaning. He concludes that while sense relations
are ''good descriptive devices'' (477), their relation to word meaning is far from
clear. Löbner considers various two-way oppositions found in studies of lexical
meaning, introducing ''duality groups'' or ''squares'' and showing that their
members are lexicalized very asymmetrically. He then argues that this asymmetry
can be understood if we take these squares to be examples of 'phase quantification'.

The next section addresses questions of ambiguity and vagueness with ''Ambiguity
and vagueness: An overview'' (chapter 23, Christopher Kennedy), ''Semantic
underspecification'' (chapter 24, Markus Egg), ''Mismatches and coercion'' (chapter
25, Henriëtte de Swart), and ''Metaphors and metonymies'' (chapter 26, Andrea
Tyler and Hiroshi Takahashi). Kennedy introduces the topics of the section,
making clear that ambiguity and vagueness are distinct empirically and in how
they can be analyzed. He reviews varieties of and tests for ambiguity, and
discusses several famous interactions between ambiguity and semantic theory. He
then considers some challenges for our understanding of vagueness and describes
four major approaches to vagueness. Egg reviews the types of ambiguity that are
treatable with an underspecification analysis, and looks at several types of
formal approaches to semantic underspecification. He considers several
motivations for formalisms that use semantic underspecification, for
underspecification and the syntax-semantics interface, and for the processing of
underspecified representations in computational linguistics and
psycholinguistics. De Swart examines type mismatches; of the three major
explanations for how they are resolved (type raising, type shifting, and type
coercion), she focuses on type coercion. After introducing enriched type
theories, she discusses how type coercion works and what we know about
comprehension type coercion. Then she looks at a particular set of instances of
coercion involving aspect, and analyzes them in Discourse Representation Theory
(DRT). Tyler and Takahashi close the section with a look at metaphor and
metonymy. They first discuss traditional approaches to metaphor and figurative
language, then present several pragmatic accounts of metaphor, beginning with
Grice's take on the topics (1969/1989, 1975). They examine relevance-theoretic
accounts, and psycholinguistic, cognitive, and conceptual accounts of metaphor
and figurative language. The authors also briefly consider metonymy on its own,
contrasting the traditional take with approaches from cognitive semantics that
establish a separate analysis for it.

Section VI has six chapters on cognitively oriented approaches to semantics:
''Cognitive semantics: An overview'' (chapter 27, Leonard Talmy), ''Prototype
theory'' (chapter 28, John R. Taylor), ''Frame Semantics'' (chapter 29, Jean Mark
Gawron), ''Conceptual Semantics'' (chapter 30, Ray Jackendoff), ''Two-level
Semantics: Semantic Form and Conceptual Structure'' (chapter 31, Ewald Lang and
Claudia Maienborn), and ''Word meaning and world knowledge'' (chapter 32, Jerry R.
Hobbs). Talmy introduces cognitive semantics by first contrasting the general
approach of cognitive linguistics with formal/generative and psychological
approaches. He examines the semantics of grammar, and looks at three ''schematic
systems'' or conceptual structures made up of closed-class conceptual categories.
He then presents three 'conceptual organizations' and discusses interactions
among semantic structures. Taylor reviews prototype theory, discussing prototype
effects found in linguistic and psychological research. He considers levels of
categorization and the 'basic level', as well as categories in cultural
contexts, prototypes vs. categories, and objections to prototypes. He briefly
discusses how words relate to the things they describe, and gives an example of
a place where prototype theory has been advantageous: the study of polysemy.
Gawron reviews Frame Semantics, considering two properties of word meanings that
make it difficult to systematically account for word meanings. Rather than
focusing on one part of these meanings like many generative accounts, Frame
Semantics (Fillmore 1975) considers linguistic meaning from the perspective of
understanding a text. Gawron reviews its motivations and theoretical tools, and
compares frames to relations and lexical fields. He works through word senses
and their ability to evoke more than one frame, and concludes with lexicography
and the use of frames in understanding discourse. Jackendoff discusses the
framework of Conceptual Semantics ((Jackendoff 1983), Pinker (1989)). He cites
two 'theoretical commitments' of Conceptual Semantics and reviews the
framework's commitment to mentalism, then compares it briefly to other
frameworks. He introduces the concepts of Conceptual Structure and Spatial
Structure. and discusses issues of compositionality and Conceptual Semantics'
recent version, 'Enriched Composition'. Lang and Maienborn's chapter focuses on
'Two-level Semantics', which makes use of two levels of representation: the
Semantic Form (SF) and the Conceptual Structure (CS). The authors give Two-level
Semantics' basic assumptions and discuss some of the aims and limitations of the
framework, demonstrating how it deals with polysemy, compositionality, and
inferences in spatial cognition. The section closes with Hobb on word meaning
and world knowledge in relation to cognitive semantics. Hobb's approach is to
formalize conceptual frameworks and then use these formalizations to define
words. He presents several core 'abstract theories' and examines how to link
word meaning to these theories. He also considers the senses of words found in
two sources, WordNet and FrameNet.

Section VII examines three theories of sentence semantics in ''Model-theoretic
semantics'' (chapter 33, Thomas Ede Zimmerman), ''Event semantics'' (chapter 34,
Claudia Maienborn), and ''Situation semantics and the ontology of natural
language'' (chapter 35, Jonathan Ginzburg). Zimmerman provides an overview of
model-theoretic semantics. He discusses truth-conditional semantics for
background and motivation before turning to possible worlds semantics. He
considers the basics of Logical Space or possible worlds (extensions,
characteristic functions, the concepts of vastness and detail, and intensions).
He then discusses model-theoretic semantics from a more specifically
mathematical/set-theoretic perspective, and makes a few notes about variants of
model-theoretic semantics. Maienborn reviews major topics in event semantics,
from Davidson (1967) to Neo-Davidsonianism to Kratzer (1995). She first
discusses the basic ideas of and motivations behind Davidson's account, as well
as the ontological status of events. Then she turns to the 'Neo-Davidsonian
paradigm' and examines the possibility of a decompositional approach to event
semantics, before turning the stage-level/individual-level distinction and the
status of states in event semantics. Ginzburg takes up Situation Semantics,
beginning with Barwise & Perry (1983) and what it means to have a
situation-based ontology. He then turns to empirical motivations for bringing
situations into semantic theory before looking at the introduction of
propositions into situation semantics. He considers some recent work attempting
to extend the approach to account for a larger set of data than the original
proposals, and other work that aims to integrate type-theoretical notions, using
tools from Type Theory with Records (TTR).

The final section examines four theories of discourse semantics in ''Situation
semantics: From indexicality to metacommunicative interaction'' (chapter 36,
Jonathan Ginzburg), ''Discourse Representation Theory'' (chapter 37, Hans Camp and
Uwe Reyle), ''Dynamic semantics'' (chapter 38, Paul Dekker), and ''Rhetorical
relations'' (chapter 39, Henk Zeevat). Ginzburg begins with a second contribution
about Situation Semantics, this time focusing on interpretation of the utterance
rather than of the sentence. He focuses on Barwise and Perry's work, laying out
their desiderata for semantics, and discusses empirical data from spoken
language that suggest the benefits of a semantics focused on utterances and
dialogue as a whole. He also reviews three frameworks used in Situation
Semantics: Discourse Representation Theory (DRT), PTT, and KoS. Kamp and Reyle
review DRT. They discuss its origins in the analysis of tense in French, and
work through a problem that was part of DRT's empirical motivation. They show
how Discourse Representation Structures (DRSs) are built and how they work, then
describe issues surrounding presupposition and binding. They also discuss the
status of the lexicon in the theory, direct reference, and several extensions
and implementations of DRT. Dekker introduces dynamic semantics, its theoretical
background and empirical motivations, then briefly looks at DRT. He describes
the workings of Dynamic Predicate Logic (Groenendijk & Stokhof 1991) and
considers its approaches to binding and truth and entailment. He then reviews
three subject areas that are typical in dynamic approaches. Last is Zeevat's
chapter on rhetorical relations, including Rhetorical Structure Theory, the
Linguistic Discourse Model, Interpretation by Abduction, and Structured
Discourse Representation Theory. He looks at why we should study rhetorical
relations in the first place, which rhetorical relations we should assume, and
what rhetorical relations relate. He then looks at several applications of
rhetorical relations, closing with a discussion of directions for the study of
rhetorical relations.

This handbook is an excellent, broad collection of new papers on the history and
current state of semantics. The editors lay out several overall goals in the
preface. First, they aim to ''discuss the foundations and methodology of
semantics'' (vii). This they certainly do, with three sections (15 chapters) on
the foundations, history, and methods of semantics. Their next goal is to
''introduce important theoretical frameworks and theoretical issues'' (vii). This
goal is clearly met in Volume 1, as a number of frameworks and theories, as well
as major theoretical issues, are addressed. For many theories and frameworks
that are not explicitly discussed, authors provide references to major works in
the area. The editors also aim to ''cover a wide variety of specific topics and
phenomena of natural language meaning'' (vii). Judging from the listed contents
of Volume 2, this goal will be addressed primarily there. However, several major
phenomena are also addressed in this volume. Finally, the editors aim to
''explore the relationship between semantics and other fields, both within
linguistics and outside'' (vii). This will certainly be addressed in Volume 3,
but it is also accomplished to some extent here, as a number of authors
reference important work in related fields.

This volume would be a valuable resource for several audiences. Especially
combined with its sister volumes, it would be particularly useful as a reference
for both emerging and established semanticists, as it covers many essential
topics all in one place, and incorporates various theoretical orientations,
frameworks, etc. The authors assume that their readers have some knowledge of
linguistics and meaning, but each chapter stands on its own in terms of
providing the necessary background and details of the topic and theoretical
approach. The volume as a whole has great breadth of coverage, but individual
chapters also display significant depth and insight into their focused topics.
Because of this, the volume would be excellent for a researcher to have on hand
for those times when she is beginning a new direction of research and is in
search of more literature on the topic, or needs to review a topic, framework,
or theory she does not usually investigate. The volume would also be valuable
for instructors of semantics-related material, either within linguistics or in a
related field such as philosophy or cognitive science.

The volume is intuitively and helpfully organized. Each chapter begins with a
list of contents and an abstract. Chapters are divided into sections depending
on subject matter, and most are clearly and helpfully organized. Many chapters
also reference other works in the same volume or one of the other two volumes.
The volume as a whole is fairly coherent. Chapters vary as to whether they have
a concluding section, but this is generally not an issue since each chapter
begins with an abstract. The references sections at the end of each chapter are
well populated and useful. The volume's extensive coverage is a positive trait,
but the lack of an index makes it less useful for individuals pursuing a
particular phenomenon or subtopic. This does not detract greatly from the
usefulness of the volume, however.

The breadth of content is impressive. A number of major frameworks and theories
are represented, and many others are well-referenced. The inclusion of
foundational and historical chapters is appreciated, as this information is
often not readily available in concise form. It is also useful to have summaries
of major theories in lexical, formal generative, cognitively-oriented, and
discourse-oriented semantics brought together in one place; many chapters
mention related work in pragmatics. Several chapters helpfully raise questions
for further research or point out areas that still need to be addressed. Several
bits of content are repeated across chapters, and numerous classic examples are
seen multiple times. This is perhaps more or less positive depending on how the
volume is used. For example, if one is reading it all together, having the same
basic information about Frege and Montague in multiple places is not necessarily
helpful. However, if a single chapter is referenced, it is good to have this
information wherever it is necessary. Likewise, the classic examples of the
morning star and the evening star, or the ''ham sandwich'' at the restaurant, are
good to repeat if the reader will only be looking at one or two chapters that
use the examples; however, it might be useful to include a bit more innovation
in the examples (perhaps the new examples could be included after reference to
the classics).

One already useful area, the section on methods, might be expanded upon by the
time of the next edition. As more semantic research is done in field and
experimental situations, there will be even more to say about these topics.
Another place for expansion would be the amount of cross-linguistic data, as
this is often a good starting point for expansion of research.

Another area for improvement is the notable number of typos: missing punctuation
marks, conspicuously misspelled words, and places where a needed word is missing
altogether. A few mistakes of this nature might be expected in nearly 1000
pages, but they are numerous.

Overall, this is a fine collection of work combining past and present
perspectives on semantics and its intellectual neighbors, as well as suggesting
new lines of research. It would be a valuable addition to the library of any
semanticist or meaning theorist.


Bar-Hillel, Yehoshua 1954. Indexical expressions. Mind 63, 359-379.

Barwise, Jon & John Perry 1983. Situations and Attitudes. Cambridge, MA: The MIT

Brentano, Frantz 1874/1911/1973. Psychology from an Empirical Standpoint.
London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.

Davidson, Donald 1967. The logical form of action sentences. In: N. Rescher
(ed.). Essays in Honor of Carl G. Hempel. Dordrecht: Reidel, 216-234. Reprinted
in: D. Davidson (ed.). Essays on Actions and Events. Oxford: Clarendon Press,
1980, 163-180.

Dowty, David R. 1972. Studies in the Logic of Verb Aspect and Time Reference in
English. Ph.D. dissertation. University of Texas, Austin.

Fillmore, Charles J. 1975. An alternative to checklist theories of meaning. In:
C. Cogen et al. (eds.). Proceedings of the First Annual Meeting of the Berkeley
Linguistics Society. Berkeley, CA: Berkeley Linguistics Society, 123-131.

Frege, Gottlob 1892. Über Sinn und Bedeutung. Zeitschrift für Philosophie und
philosophische Kritik, 25-50. English Translation in: P. Geach & M. Black
(eds.). Translations from the Philosophical Writings of Gottlob Frege. Oxford:
Blackwell, 1980, 56-78.

Grice, H. Paul 1957. Meaning. Philosophical Review 66, 377-388.

Grice, H. Paul 1969. Utterer's meaning and intentions. Philosophical Review 78,
147-177. Reprinted in: H.P. Grice. Studies in the Way of Words. Cambridge, MA:
Harvard University Press, 1989, 86-116.

Grice, H. Paul 1975. Logic and conversation. In: P. Cole & J.L. Morgan (eds.).
Syntax and Semantics 3: Speech Acts. New York: Academic Press, 41-58.

Groenendijk, Jeroen & Martin Stokhof 1991. Dynamic Predicate Logic. Linguistics
& Philosophy 14, 39-100.

Hale, Ken & Samuel Jay Keyser 1993. On argument structure and the syntactic
expression of lexical relations.

Halle, Morris & Alec Marantz 1993. Distributed Morphology and the pieces of
inflection. In: K. Hale & S.J. Keyser (eds.). The View from Building 20. Essays
in Honor of Sylvain Bromberger. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 111-176.

Jackendoff, Ray 1983. Semantics and Cognition. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

Kaplan, David 1989. Demonstratives: An essay on the semantics, logic,
metaphysics, and epistemology of demonstratives and other indexicals. In: J.
Almog, J. Perry & H. Wettstein (eds.). Themes from Kaplan. Oxford: Oxford
University Press, 481-563.

Krazter, Angelika 1995. Stage-level and individual-level predicates. In: G.N.
Carlson & F.J. Peletier (eds.). The Generic Book. Chicago, IL: The University of
Chicago Press, 125-175.

Kripke, Saul 1979. A puzzle about belief. In: A. Margalit (ed.). Meaning and
Use. Dordrecht: Reidel, 139-183.

Pinker, Stephen 1989. Learnability and Cognition. The Acquisition of Argument
Structure. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

Pustejovsky, James 1988. The geometry of events. In: C. Tenny (ed.). Studies in
Generative Approaches to Aspect. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 19-39.

Russell, Bertrand 1905. On denoting. Mind 14, 479-493.

Sylvia Reed recently completed her Ph.D. in linguistics at the University of Arizona. Her dissertation focuses on the semantics of grammatical aspect, drawing data primarily from Scottish Gaelic. Her main research interests lie in the semantics and morphosyntax of aspect, tense, mood, and modality; language description and documentation; and theoretical and experimental morphology.