Language Evolution: The Windows Approach addresses the question: "How can we unravel the evolution of language, given that there is no direct evidence about it?"
The LINGUIST List is dedicated to providing information on language and language analysis, and to providing the discipline of linguistics with the infrastructure necessary to function in the digital world. LINGUIST is a free resource, run by linguistics students and faculty, and supported primarily by your donations. Please support LINGUIST List during the 2016 Fund Drive.
Review of Uniformity and Diversity in Language Policy
EDITORS: Norrby, Catrin; Hajek, John TITLE: Uniformity and Diversity in Language Policy SUBTITLE: Global Perspectives SERIES: Multilingual Matters PUBLISHER: Multilingual Matters YEAR: 2011
Marián Sloboda, Charles University in Prague
The book under review is a collection of sixteen chapters about language policies in several countries and regions of the world. In particular, these areas lie in Europe (10 chapters predominantly about western Europe), Australia (4 chapters) and North America (2 chapters), i.e. the volume focuses on the so-called Western countries.
It is necessary to note right at the beginning that the book's title “Uniformity and Diversity in Language Policy: Global Perspectives” may be somewhat misleading. Uniformity and diversity in language policy is not a central topic for most of the chapters, although it is (usually implicitly and to various degrees) taken into account in some of the chapters. Similarly, the main perspective is not always global, but very often it is a national, regional or local one -- in a number of chapters it is the perspective of a nation, region, minority language speakers, employees of a supranational company, participants to an online discussion, etc. This does not mean, of course, that global perspectives are absent from the book. Most authors consider important global phenomena, such as international migration, international trade, international protection of minority languages, etc. The imprecision of the volume's title may be due to the high diversity of the topics which the book contains and for which it must have been difficult to find a suitable common title.
Above all the book contains analytic descriptions of various aspects of variably complex language policies in different locations of the Western world. What holds this heterogeneous collection together is the attention to the historical development as well as synchronic context of language polices, to the (preliminary) outcomes of their implementation and to certain tensions between the language policies and the existing situation in the given location.
The book puts strong emphasis on factuality and description -- an effort to elaborate on the theory of language policy is absent from the volume. This may also contribute to the high degree of the text's intelligibility and accessibility to a wider rather than just specialist audience -- not only to experts such as academics, researchers and policy-makers, but also to laypersons not familiar with terminology but interested in language policy in the contemporary world.
The General Introduction opening the book describes, for the most part, the content of the three parts of the book into which its 16 chapters are divided. The first part, entitled “Language Policy at the Official Level,” consists of five chapters which describe aspects of language policies formulated at the official, usually state (national), level. The second part, “Language Policy in Practice: Indigenous and Migrant Languages in Education,” contains five chapters which deal in more or less detailed ways with the issue of languages in education. Since it seems that they are about public school education, this part can also be considered a description of official language policies. The third part bears a rather vague title “Language Policy in Real and Virtual Worlds,” where “virtual” signals that language policy in the online world would also be in focus, which, however, is the case in only two out of the six chapters in this part of the volume. This part is more heterogeneous than the two preceding ones: it includes studies of language policies not only on the Internet, but also in the commercial sector and among persecuted political opposition. I return to the organization of the book later in this review. I turn now to a summary of the content of the individual chapters in order to show the variability of the topics and locations involved.
In Chapter 1 (“Language policy and citizenship in Quebec: French as a force for unity in diverse society?”) Jane Warren and Leigh Oakes describe the promotion of French as an element in the Québécois identity. Among other issues, they point to the fact that, although it is not directly applied to the Aboriginal peoples of this part of Canada, this language policy nevertheless has a significant impact on this population as well.
In Chapter 2 (“Do national languages need support and protection in legislation? The case of Swedish as the ‘principal language’ of Sweden”) Sally Boyd investigates the development of national language policy and legislation in Sweden, where Swedish language use is losing some of its domains in favour of English. A goal of the national policy is to support Swedish both at the national and international levels in the domains in which English prevails. The author points out that the argumentation employed for this national language policy is inconsistent: certain principles are applied to the speakers of Swedish as L1, but different ones to the speakers of other languages spoken in Sweden as L1. She argues in favour of solving the issues of linguistic diversity by way of more sensitive local language policy measures, rather than by national legislation.
In Chapter 3 (“Language policy and smaller national languages: The Baltic states in the new millennium”), Uldis Ozolins returns to the intensive and emotional debates over national language policies in the Baltic countries, which are marked by a conflict between the promotion of the native national languages (Estonian, Latvian and Lithuanian), which were retreating from use in the Soviet era on the one hand and the maintenance of Russian, the dominant language in the Soviet period, on the other hand. On the basis of the data from national surveys, the author argues that, in contrast to these debates, mutual tolerance prevails among the population in general and the level of its multilingualism is increasing.
In Chapter 4 (“Language policy in Australia: What goes up must come down?”) Paulin G. Djité traces the development of the national language policy of Australia, which has been moving from support for multilingualism to support for monolingual English literacy. The making of Australian language policies has not always been based on actual communicative needs of the population, but also on presumed economic advantages and ideologically motivated political interests.
In Chapter 5 (“Regional languages, the European Charter and republican values in France today”) Leigh Oakes describes how the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages (an international treaty of the Council of Europe) and a wider shift in thinking about minority languages influences the language policy of France, especially the values of the French Republic. It becomes more interesting to observe this influence when we realize that France, as a rare case among the Council of Europe's members, has not ratified the Charter yet.
Chapter 6 opens the second part of the volume, which focuses on education. In this chapter (“Breton language maintenance and regeneration in regional education policy”), Tadgh Ó hIfearnáin addresses the efforts in the regeneration of Breton in France. He investigates life experiences and opinions of Breton activists and concludes that the minority Breton language policy relies very much on school education, but needs to be accompanied by other language management supporting Breton language use also in the life period after graduation from Breton-medium schools.
In Chapter 7 ('Language policy in Spain: The coexistence of small and big languages') David Lasagabaster describes the situation in language education in Spain, especially in the Basque Country. He deals with the question of successful teaching of traditional 'small' (minority) languages in the situation in which this is challenged by increasing immigration and globalization (by the immigrants' usual preference for the 'big' national language and a preference for learning the 'big' English language as foreign). He arrives at the conclusion that it is not efforts to promote monolingualism in the minority language, but on the contrary, support for multilingualism that would be useful for maintaining the traditional minority languages.
In Chapter 8 (“Language policy and language contact in New Mexico: The case of Spanish”) Catherine E. Travis and Daniel J. Villa describe the development of the situation of Spanish in New Mexico. They point out that the Spanish variety which has traditionally been spoken in this state of the USA is vanishing, while the position of another variety of Spanish, the one spoken by current migrants from Mexico, is becoming stronger.
In Chapter 9 (“Indigenous languages, bilingual education and English in Australia”), Gillian Wigglesworth and David Lasagabaster describe the development of education policy for the indigenous language speakers in Australia. This policy is currently heading towards monolingual teaching in English. Among other conclusions, the authors point to the discrepancy between the official espousing of the notion of 'knowledge society' on the one hand and the situation in which official decisions are in contradiction to the newest research findings concerning language education for minorities (i.e. to educate them also in their home languages).
In Chapter 10 (“Bringing Asia to the home front: The Australian experience of Asian language education through national policy”), Yvette Slaughter draws our attention to another topic in Australian language policy, namely, the teaching of Asian languages. She points to the strong economic motivation behind the policy of teaching selected Asian languages which are important for Australia's international business as foreign, and to the ensuing problem of language learning continuity in the educational process and the inadequacy of the adopted conception of Asian language teaching for those children in Australia who speak these languages in their homes.
Chapter 11 opens the third and last part of the volume. It is devoted to language policies adopted at other than the official levels and to the interaction between official language policies and language policies in other places and social structures. Chapter 11 itself (“Testing identity: Language tests and Australian citizenship”) is an exception to this focus to some extent, as its authors, Kerry Ryan and Tim McNamara, analyze the national language and knowledge tests for obtaining Australian citizenship. This is a very important issue nowadays if we consider the current changes in national identities in the context of intensive international migration. The authors describe the origin and development of such tests in Australia. They conclude that, in the current test conception, the role of the tested language as a symbol (of national identity, social cohesion or the like) predominates over the practical implications of the required standard of language skills.
In Chapter 12 (“Language as political emblem in the new culture war in Northern Ireland”), Diarmait Mac Giolla Chríost investigates language management (including small-scale informal language policies) in a totally different type of setting than the previous chapters, describing Irish language acquisition and efforts at its use in a community of prisoners who had fought against the British rule in Northern Ireland. The author traces the politicization of their local variety of Irish in the struggle between the Republicans and the Unionists in the course of the second half of the 20th century and the penetration of this local language management into Northern Ireland's public, including cultural, policy.
In Chapter 13 (“Language policy and reality in South Tyrol”), Claudia Maria Riehl and John Hajek describe the regional language policy and some of its consequences in South Tyrol which has a regional German majority, but belongs to Italy today. This language policy is interesting for its emphasis on the separation of the two ethnolinguistic communities (the German one and the Italian one) who, however, live together and inevitably come into contact and intermingle.
In Chapter 14 (“Addressing policy in the Web: Netiquettes and emerging policies of language use in German Internet forums”), Heinz L. Kretzenbacher investigates the negotiation of local policy of formal/informal personal reference (du vs. Sie, or T vs. V forms of pronouns and verbs) among the users of German Internet forums. Noticeable is the trend towards more informality on the Web and a perceived difference between the norms of online communication as opposed the communicative norms in the offline world.
In Chapter 15 (“Language policy in practice: What happens when Swedish IKEA and H&M take ‘you’ on?”), Catrin Norrby and John Hajek also investigate the use and management of the informal pronouns and second person singular verb forms (T forms), but in various languages and as part of the policy of two Swedish supranational companies. The chapter focuses on which countries and which types of communication with customers the informal address/reference was accepted in and how local personnel in countries other than Sweden cope with this top-down policy based on Swedish communicative norms.
In the last chapter, Chapter 16 (“Regulating language in the global service industry”), Deborah Cameron analyzes company language policy as well. She describes various forms of language management in service-providing companies based mostly in the UK. She notes that the relationships between the ordinary employees and managers and between the companies and their clients/customers are prominent objects of language management in this sector. This language management includes, e.g., the scripting of interactions to personalize communication between the employees and the clients/customers or the promotion of informal forms of address to evoke the impression of collegiality between employees from various positions in the company's hierarchy. This chapter draws attention to the variety of particular ways language management is interconnected with economic and organizational management.
The quality of the studies in this volume testifies to the fact the authors are experts with deep insight into the issues and locations they describe. Although the chapters are very diverse in geography and focus, they concern a number of topics of general interest, such as citizenship, nation building, the situation of indigenous populations, minority language education, economic interests in language policy, efforts to change communicative norms, etc. If the reader focuses on these general topics, it becomes possible to compare the otherwise diverse studies with each other or with another situation the reader is familiar with.
Out of the set of the general topics covered by the book, I would like first to highlight the question of the ways in which the management of language is interconnected with economic and sociocultural management. Particularly interesting in this respect is the problem of identification of connections between, on the one hand, the adoption and implementation of a language policy and, on the other hand, the factors we are not used to relating to language policy, such as politeness, real property market, transport infrastructure, etc.
The chapters about Australia suggest another interesting general issue, namely, the question of the difference between language policy implementation in federations and in unitary states and, more generally, the question of interaction between various levels of governance, some of which often alter or block the policy implementation process.
Another general topic mentioned in the book is the question of binding private subjects to a language policy adopted by public administration. This is an important topic considering the current transfer of a number of services from public to private organizations, which we can witness in today's Europe, for instance.
An open question is the influence of international migration on the situation of traditional minority languages. Some of the 'European' chapters in the volume show that the linguistic situation in officially bilingual regions evolves to the detriment of these minority languages. Political practice supporting traditional minority languages has been more or less stabilized already. However, the current increase in immigration presents a challenge when immigrants generally prefer the majority language or when the present minority language policy orients to parallel bilingualism and is monolingualist. Such policy ceases to be sustainable in this situation.
A classical topic, which, however, is becoming more and more pressing with regard to the intensity of international migration, is the methods of teaching in schools of the so-called 'foreign' languages which are, however, used by migrant children in their homes. How can we ensure the teaching of such languages as foreign to one part of the child population and education developing the already existing language skills in the other part?
Interestingly, the chapters on education in this volume constrain themselves to school education. Therefore, the logical next step is to ask how it is with extra-curricular forms of language teaching and learning, such as with various types of language courses, tutoring and 'language tandems' or language exchange partnerships (cf. Masuda, 2009). What role do these forms of language teaching and learning play in the linguistic situation in a given location and how do they interact with language education in schools? These were some of the interesting questions the volume under review raises.
Characteristic of the book as a whole is the absence of theoretical ambitions or efforts to elaborate on the theory of language policy, which, interestingly, is likewise not very strong in recent publications on language policy (e.g. Shohamy, 2006; Spolsky, 2004 and 2012). Methodological questions are also not elaborated on and even not much described in the volume. The book is thus rather 'factographic' or documentary, although it does not lack interesting insights coming from the authors' work with their data and experience.
The content summary above has shown a high level of the book's heterogeneity. How can we read it, then? First of all, it is necessary to appreciate the evidently large amount of editorial work spent on putting this volume together. It is apparent that it was composed in such a way that the chapters follow each other in a logical order. With respect to the heterogeneity of the volume, however, selective reading may be more useful than reading the book as a continuous text. For example, readers with rudimentary knowledge of language policy in Australia, and possibly with a stereotypical idea of its successful policy of multilingualism, will find it very useful to select the four chapters on Australia (chapters 4, 9, 10 and 11). Those interested in 'small' national languages, regional minority languages, national identity, supranational companies or other topics may want to proceed in a similar way.
The volume's heterogeneity is underlined by the absence of a concluding chapter with a discussion, summary or comparison across the chapters. The introduction was not used for a general discussion on uniformity and diversity in language policy but describes, instead, the content of each chapter, and the same thing is repeated in the forewords to each part of the book. A discussion or comparative concluding chapter could have lent more coherence to the book and could have added another dimension to the chapters.
The book under review is a useful contribution to our understanding of the historical development and present contexts of language policy creation and implementation at various levels, from supranational to local, in the Western world. Readers will very likely find in it something which will complement their knowledge of the locations or aspects of language policy they are interested in. Thanks to the book's relatively wide geographical coverage and its attention to the outcomes of language policies cast against historical and present-day backgrounds, persons working in language policy can find here inspiration for their work on language issues in their own countries. Those seeking theoretical innovations or methodological inspiration will most likely be disappointed -- however, this was not the editors' or authors' explicit ambition.
Masuda, Yuko. 2009. Negotiation of language selection in Japanese-English exchange partnerships. In J. Nekvapil and T. Sherman (eds.), Language Management in Contact Situations: Perspectives from Three Continents (pp. 185-205). Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang.
Shohamy, Elana. 2006. Language Policy: Hidden Agendas and New Approaches. London: Routledge.
Spolsky, Bernard. 2004. Language Policy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Spolsky, Bernard (ed.). 2012. The Cambridge Handbook of Language Policy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
ABOUT THE REVIEWER
ABOUT THE REVIEWER:
Marián Sloboda currently works as Assistant Professor at the Department of
Central European Studies, Charles University in Prague, Czech Republic. He
is interested in the theory and practice of language management and in the
issues of multilingualism and minority language support. He is a member of
an advisory body to the Czech government on these issues.