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Review of  Lexicography

Reviewer: Niladri Sekhar Dash
Book Title: Lexicography
Book Author: Reinhard Rudolf Karl Hartmann
Publisher: Routledge (Taylor and Francis)
Linguistic Field(s): Lexicography
Issue Number: 16.2156

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Date: Tue, 5 Jul 2005 13:21:28 +0530 (IST)
From: Niladri Sekhar Dash
Subject: Lexicography: Critical Concepts, Volume 3

EDITOR: Hartmann, R. R. K.
TITLE: Lexicography
SUBTITLE: Critical Concepts
SERIES: Critical Concepts in Linguistics
PUBLISHER: Routledge (Taylor and Francis)
YEAR: 2003

Niladri Sekhar Dash, Indian Statistical Institute, Kolkata, India

[This is the third part of a three-part review. -- Eds.]


The third volume contains 24 papers divided into three broad divisions.
Part 7 (Typological Perspectives) refers to the difficulties that arise
when we try to classify dictionaries by various criteria predefined for
the simplification of the task (8 chapters). Part 8 (Structural
Perspectives) highlights numerous ways in which information of various
types are structured and incorporated within dictionary (7 chapters). Part
9 (Interdisciplinary Perspectives) refers to the close overlapping
interface observed between lexicography in one part and other disciplines
on the other (9 chapters).


Chapter 47 contains "Towards a general theory of lexicography" written by
Lev V. Shcherba. This reprint and translated version appeared in
International Journal of Lexicography. Vol. 8. No. 4. Pp. 314-350 (1995).

Chapter 48 contains "A typological classification of dictionaries on the
basis of distinctive features" written by Yakov Malkiel. The article first
appeared in F. W. Householder and S. Saporta (Eds.) (1962) Problems in
Lexicography. Pp. 3-24. Bloomington IN: Indiana University Research Center
for Language and Semiotic Studies.

Chapter 49 contains "The typology of pedagogical dictionaries" written by
Petr N. Denisov. The article was first published in P. N. Denisov and V.
V. Morkovkin (1977) Problems of Pedagogical Lexicography. Moscow:
Izdatel'stvo Mosk. Univ. Pp. 23-42. (Translated by Victoria Punchuk for
this reprint 2002)

Chapter 50 contains "Historical dictionaries" written by Reuven Merkin.
The article first appeared in R. R. K. Hartmann (ed.) (1983) Lexicography:
Principles and Practice. Pp. 123-133. London: Academic Press.

Chapter 51 contains "EFL dictionaries: Past achievements and present
needs" written by Anthony P. Cowie. It first appeared in R. R. K. Hartmann
(Ed.) (1984) LEXeter'83 Proceedings. Pp. 155-164. Tubingen: Niemeyer.

Chapter 52 contains "Author concordances, with special reference to
Shakespeare" written by Olga M. Karpova. This is an updated version
of "Lecture at Exeter Workshop on Reference Science", 1996.

Chapter 53 contains "Describing a new lexicographic hybrid: the
encyclopedic learner's dictionary" written by Martin P. Stark. This
contains extracts from Chapter 1 and the Conclusion from Encyclopedic
Learners' Dictionaries: A study of their design features from the user
perspective. Tuebingen: M. Niemeyer (Updated by the author with modified

Chapter 54 contains "Bilingualism as a genre" written by Gregory C.A.
James. It is taken from Gregory C.A. James (2000) Colporul: A History of
Tamil dictionaries. Pp. 450-458. Chennai: Cre-A.

Chapter 55 contains "L'énonce lexicographique: l'article de dictionnaire"
written by Jean Dubois and Claude Dubois. It is taken from Jean Dubois and
Claude Dubois (1971) Introduction à la lexicographie: le dictionnaire. Pp.
39-48. Paris: Librairie Larousse. (It is not known why this particular
paper is kept in French without translating while all other paper are

Chapter 56 contains "Pronunciation keys: principles, practices,
performances" written by Robert H. Secrist. It first appeared in D. Hobar
(Ed.) (1982) Papers of the Dictionary Society of North America 1977. Pp.
32-40. Terre Haute: Indian State University and DSNA.

Chapter 57 contains "Methods of ordering senses within entries" written by
Barbara A. Kipfer. The article first appeared in R. R. K. Hartmann (Ed.)
(1984) LEXeter'83 Proceedings. Pp. 101-108. Tubingen: Niemeyer.

Chapter 58 contains "Definitions and explanations" written by Patrick
Hanks. The paper is taken from J.M. Sinclair (ed.) (1987) Looking Up: An
Account of the COBUILD Project. Pp. 123-136. London: Collins ELT.

Chapter 59 contains "Component parts and structures of general monolingual
dictionaries: a survey" written by Franz J. Hausmann and Herbert E.
Weigand. It was first published in F. J. Hausmann et al. (Eds.) (1989)
Wörterbüche/Dictionaries: An International Encyclopedia of Lexicography.
Vol. I. Pp.328-360. Berlin: W. de Gruyter.

Chapter 60 contains "The rise and development of modern labels in English
dictionaries" written by Frederic G. Cassidy. The paper was first
published in Dictionaries. Journal of the Dictionary Society of North
America. 18:97-112 (1997).

Chapter 61 contains "Mediostructures in bilingual LSP dictionaries"
written by Sandro Nielsen. It first appeared in Lexicographica
International Annual. 15:90-113. (1999).

Chapter 62 contains "Lexicography of as applied linguistics" written by
Hans H. Meier. This is an updated version of the article appeared in
English Studies 50. Pp. 141-151 (1969).

Chapter 63 contains "The ideal dictionary, lexicographer and user" written
David Crystal. The paper first appeared in R. F. Ilson (Ed.) (1986)
Lexicography: An Emerging International Profession. Pp. 72-81. Manchester:
Manchester University Press.

Chapter 64 contains "Terminology and lexicography: their complementarity"
written by Fred W. Riggs. The paper first appeared in International
Journal of Lexicography. 2(2): 89-110, (1989).

Chapter 65 contains "Lexicomputing and the dictionary of the future"
written by W. Steven Dodd. The article is taken form G. James (Ed.) (1989)
Lexicographers and Their Works. Pp. 83-93. Exeter: University of Exeter

Chapter 66 contains "How pictorial illustrations interact with verbal
information in the dictionary entry: a case study" written by Werner
Hupka. This is a translated and updated version of the article appeared in
Werner Hupka (1989) Wort und Bild: Die Illustrationen in Wörterbüchern und
Enzyklopädien. Pp. 235-244. Tuebingen: M. Niemeyer.

Chapter 67 contains "Chinese and Western metalexicography" written by
HUANG Jianhua. The paper is taken from L. Flowerdew and A. K. K. Tong
(Eds.) (1994) Entering Text. Pp. 228-238. Hong Kong: HKUST Language Centre.

Chapter 68 contains "Reference books from Cuneiform to computer" written
by Bill Katz. The paper is obtained from Bill Katz (1998) Cuneiform to
Computer: A History of Reference Sources. Pp. 1-18. Lanham, MD: Scarecrow

Chapter 69 contains "What then is reference science?" written by Tom
McArthur. It is obtained from Tom McArthur (1998) Living Words, Language,
Lexicography and the knowledge revolution. Pp. 215-222. Exeter: University
of Exeter Press.

Chapter 70 contains "Methods in dictionary research" written by Reinhard
R. K. Hartmann. It is collected form R. R. K. Hartmann (2001) Teaching and
Researching Lexicography. Pp. 110-125. Harlow: Longman/Pearson Education.


In chapter 47 (pp. 11-50) Lev V. Shcherba makes a systematic attempt to
place dictionary into a more general meta-lexicographic framework in
which 'reference works' have already occupied their places of dignity and
distinction. To establish her proposition, the author designs a scheme of
network in terms of six rather abstract oppositions: normative (or
standard-descriptive) dictionary vs. informative (reference) dictionary,
encyclopedic-technical dictionary vs. general-language dictionary,
thesaurus-concordance dictionary vs. ordinary-explanatory dictionary,
ordinary-alphabetic dictionary vs. ideological-thematic dictionary,
definitional dictionary vs. translating dictionary, non-historical
dictionary vs. historical dictionary. No doubt, the scheme is powerful
enough to encompass the wide range of varieties we usually find in
dictionaries. Yet, we are slightly doubtful if this scheme is able to
include all the varieties of dictionaries developed so far over the

In chapter 48 (pp. 51-69) Yakov Malkiel makes some sincere attempts to
impose order on an assortment of about 500 Spanish dictionaries. The means
to this end is a set of criteria based on three bundles of characteristic
features. The first one is 'range' that refers to the issues like
measurement density of lexical entries, number of languages involved,
extent of concentration on lexical data, etc. The second one
is 'perspective' that refers to the factors like timescale, order of
arrangement, level of tone, etc. Finally, the third one is 'presentation'
that addresses issues like definition technique, verbal documentation,
graphic illustrations, and the presence of special features like
abbreviations, phonetic transcription, labeling, localization, etc.
According to the author, "the classificatory schema here advocated is so
flexible as to be readily adaptable to all but an inconsequential
percentage of lexical compilations" (p. 68). However, we are not sure if
this scheme of categorization is able to address the ethical and legal
issues (Landau 2001) involved with dictionary developments.

In chapter 49 (pp. 70-89) Petr N. Denisov offers an application of
Shcherba's typology to the classification of pedagogical dictionaries. He
first evaluates Shcherba's article "Towards a general theory of
lexicography" (1940) against those of other authorities such, as Malkiel,
Quemada and Zgusta and then identifies the main problem areas (i.e. basic
types of dictionaries, the unity of the lexical system in dictionary, the
interrelation between the spoken and the written language, the meaning and
usage of words, and the vocabulary). Next, he makes a critical evaluation
of what sorts of dictionaries may be appropriate for different groups of
learners. Finally, he sums up that a general typology of dictionaries
should take into account the following factors (p.87): (a) sociolinguistic
and psycholinguistic parameters (i.e. categories of users, aims of the
dictionary, psychological and sociological features of the user), (b)
linguistic parameters (i.e. how the lexical system of the language is
reflected: single-purpose, multipurpose, (or combined) and complex (or
universal) dictionaries), and (c) semiotic parameters (i.e. word-list,
structure of entry (definition, synonyms, antonyms, pictures,
collocations, citations, etc.), cross-reference apparatus of the
dictionary. Readers are urged to keep open mind about which type of
dictionary may work best for which type of users.

In chapter 50 (pp. 90-100) Reuven Merkin traces the slow progress of the
major historical dictionary projects to the mid-1980s against the
background of early nineteenth-century etymological dictionaries and
famous philologist-lexicographers like James Murray and Jacob Grimm.
Although some of these dictionary projects are completed with the
assistance of modern computer technology, many of them are still lingering
around or lying still unfinished. He refers to some of the 20th century
historical dictionaries, which are completed in Denmark, USA, and USSR.
Also he identifies nearly eighteen dictionary projects, which are in
progress. Finally, he refers to some factors (e.g. sacrifice some of
traditional characteristics, substitution of parts of the semantic
subdivision of the entry, use of multipurpose concordance, and taking
advantage of computing facilities), which need to be taken care of for the
acceleration of the projects.

In chapter 51 (pp. 101-111) Anthony P. Cowie makes a survey on the ways
about the state of the art of EFL (English as a Foreign Language)
dictionaries. Here he pays special focus on the features as the treatment
of grammatical codes and collocational information, distinction
between 'decoding' or passive comprehension and 'encoding' or active
production, and the importance of text cohesion and pragmatic force. Quite
rationally, the author is anxious to know "whether our existing headword
conventions can satisfactorily handle the many and varied cases in which
word meanings are determined by restricted lexical contexts; whether the
elucidation of meaning in entries for determiners and connectives calls
for examples spanning several sentences; and what conventions need to be
developed for representing the pragmatic force of conversational formulae"
(p. 110). It can be, however, mentioned here that further progress has
been achieved in this direction within last few decades after the
emergence of two new perspectives in dictionary compilation: 'pedagogical
lexicography' and 'corpus linguistics'.

In chapter 52 (pp. 112-123) Olga M. Karpova critically examines the theory
and practice of 'author lexicography'. Starting from the sixteenth century
English 'hard word' (McDermott 2002) dictionaries and Bible concordances,
she roams through the large-scale and computer generated indexes and
lexical databases to the works of specific authors. Finally, she proposes
new typology of concordances that emerges from the survey of English
writers' concordances (Karpova 1994). It works on three major criteria:
corpus, citation and label. In all these cases, concordances will
be 'complete' and 'differential' although they may exhibit slight
differences among themselves due to the variation of the content of the
texts on which the lists are made. The bibliography includes a list of
Shakespeare concordances.

In chapter 53 (pp. 124-134) Martin P. Stark exemplifies an interesting
double hybrid, the combination of the learner's dictionary with the
encyclopedic dictionary. This 'cross-breeding' has led to the development
of encyclopedic learners' dictionaries such as the 'Longman Dictionary of
English Language and Culture' (1992) and the 'Oxford Advanced Learner's
Encyclopedic Dictionary' (1992). The author explains these dictionaries in
terms of the information categories treated and their potential usefulness
for the needs of their buyers. Also, he recommends nearly nine features
(p. 129-30) that should be considered at the time of production of
encyclopedic learners' dictionary. The author is quite optimistic about
its future if this new genre is able to take advantage of electronic
multimedia to turn itself into computerized dictionary with encyclopedic
content as have been the case with the 'Longman Web Dictionary'.

In chapter 54 (pp. 135-146) Gregory C.A. James deals with another hybrid
dictionary type known as 'bilingualized dictionary'. He highlights various
instances of the formula 'headword + definition in the same language +
gloss in a different language' are given, with special reference to
English and Tamil. In contrast with the traditional bilingual dictionary
(which dispenses with definitions and concentrates on translation
equivalents for the different senses of the headword), the bilingualized
dictionary offers partial or complete translations of entries, including
the original definitions, as in the 'Oxford Advanced Learner's English-
Chinese Dictionary' (1984). Gregory James distinguishes three sub-types of
the genre, the 'learners' dictionary', the 'teaching dictionary' and
the 'learning dictionary', according to the degree of interlingual
adaptation for the benefit of Tamil learners of English.

In chapter 55 (pp. 157-169) Jean Dubois and Claude Dubois analyze the
dictionary entry (article) and its constituent parts. Eight such
categories are distinguished in addition to the headword: pronunciation,
grammar, etymology, definition, examples(s), idiomatic phrases, technical
senses and encyclopedic information. Some specific problems are then
outlines, and the text concludes with eight arguments why their solutions
in the Dictionnaire du francais contemporian (1967) could be considered
exemplary. Unfortunately, against the practice of the volume as well the
series this is the only paper, which is kept in French, without
translating it in English. This may create trouble for them who do not
know French but want to know the content of the paper. Like other papers
this should have been included in the volume after it is translated.

In chapter 56 (pp. 170-181) Robert H. Secrist deals with the problem of
representing pronunciation -- one of the most obvious information
categories treated in the general monolingual and bilingual dictionaries.
The author attempts nothing less than a critical evaluation of the various
practices of handling phonetic information in six American college
dictionaries since Webster's Third New International Dictionary (1961) and
asks whether a "moderate, sensible and above all rational approach to
symbolization in pronunciation keys" is feasible (p. 179).

In chapter 57 (pp. 182-190) Barbara A. Kipfer addresses the question that
has occupied dictionary makers, critics and users alike is whether the
presentation of meaning or more specifically, the varying senses of the
headwords listed in a dictionary, should follow consistent principles. The
author summarizes the various possibilities of arranging senses in order:
by 'usage' or statistical frequency, by '(psycho)logical' or semantic
criteria, or by 'etymology' or historical sequence. She concludes that
these are often in conflict, even within single dictionaries, and
therefore should be used in combination, supported by computer-assisted
corpus evidence.

In chapter 58 (pp. 191- 206) Patrick Hanks is concerned with the new
strategies designed to help lexicographers do the job of explaining, and
users understanding, the meanings(s) of English words and phrases. Each
entry consists of paragraphs containing a discursive explanation of each
of the senses of the headword, and each explanation is in two parts, the
definiendum in a defining clause (e.g. "A brick is "), and the definiens
in a specifying phrase (e.g. "a rectangular block used for building
walls"). Hanks then show how this method (which works differently for
verbs, nouns, and adjectives) is superior to traditional defining styles,
particularly when it is supposed by text corpus evidence, in that it can
show learners typical, ordinary and 'productive' patterns of usage.

In chapter 59 (pp. 207- 254) Franz J. Hausmann and Herbert E. Weigand
address the issues of components and structures of the prototypical
general dictionary. The intricacies of and relationships between
the 'macrostructure' (roughly of the word list) and the 'microstructure'
(roughly of the entry) are explained, and other structural elements as
distinguished in the General Introduction in Volume I (such as
megastructure or 'textual book structure' as well as others such
as 'access structure', 'information types', 'addressing' and 'outside
matter') are comprehensively surveyed, classified and exemplified by
reference to three languages of the encyclopedia. The authors ask for a
theory of 'diasystematic labelling' of temporally, regionally,
stylistically, attitudinally and otherwise marked usages.

In chapter 60 (255- 169) Frederic G. Cassidy presents a critical overview
of labeling practices, starting with the realization that 'languages are
never homogeneous' and documenting progress in the codification of
language variety in lexicography, from the diffusion of Latin and the
emergence of the various European vernaculars to the more or loess
principled use of labels in Johnson's, Webster's and Murray's dictionaries
of English. However, Cassidy says little about the twentieth century, and
leaves open the issue of how labeling could be further improved by a more
comprehensive theoretical framework as discussed in Nori (2000).

In chapter 61 (pp. 270-294) Sandro Nielsen deals with another still
relatively under-researched topic namely 'mediostructure', or the system
of cross-references inside a dictionary. The author shows that bilingual
technical dictionaries that intend to present complex culture-specific
information appear to need an elaborate apparatus (of such external
devices as grammatical abbreviations, usage labels and relational logos)
to allow internal and external links for various purposes, for example to
support comprehension, to distribute information, and to assist
production/translation. Often gains for the lexicographer must be balanced
by the costs for the user.

In chapter 62 (pp. 307- 318) Hans H. Meier makes the point that
linguistically-oriented (today we would say 'metalexicographic') theory
can inform and improve lexicographic practice, for example, in the
arrangement of the word-list, the semantic sub-division of entries, and
the relative status of etymology, grammar and lexicology. In fact here
Meier expands his argument that addresses the case for replacing the
skeptical love-hate relationship between linguists and lexicographers by
more sensible attitude of constructive give and take.

In chapter 63 (pp. 319- 327) David Crystal starts with an instructive
parallel: how is Chomsky's 'ideal speaker-writer' model relevant to our
understanding of the dichotomy writer and user? Is it sufficient to talk
vaguely about potential 'competence'? The ideal dictionary must be both
comprehensive in coverage thorough in treatment, and to achieve these
ideals, we need more empirical data (probably from corpus) on what
constitutes better lexicographers as well as better users. The case has
thus been made for applying psycholinguistics to the field of lexicography.

In chapter 64 (pp. 328-350) Fred W. Riggs argues that both the fields of
lexicography and terminography are complementary in the sense that there
is an underlying interface between the two fields. By contrast with the
semasiological approach of lexicography (from word to meaning),
terminology onomasiologically proceeds from concepts to terms. This
distinction is basic and determines the working methods of lexicographers
and terminologists but can, unfortunately, also lead to misunderstanding.
Riggs demonstrates the usefulness of terminological principles by applying
them to the solution of one lexicographic problem, viz. the set of
synonymous terms for the concept 'multiword lexical unit'.

In chapter 65 (pp. 351- 362) W. Steven Dodd argues for the potential
benefit of linking the work of lexicography with language corpus access,
computerized word-processing, and data manipulation. He discusses four
types of software, which had begun to help improve the traditional
paper/print dictionary and herald a new generation of electronic
dictionary, machine-readable dictionary and fully electronic reference
works, which may well constitute a dynamic service rather than a static
product. Both the search for information categories and the way they are
displayed are becoming more user-friendly, even 'personalized'. This scope
of customization of dictionaries and other reference materials can
probably invoke revolutionary change in the realm of language education
and language information access.

In chapter 66 (pp.363-390) Werner Hupka acknowledges the contribution of
art and graphic technology (i.e. visual illustrations) to the fields of
dictionary making, reference materials designing, language teaching, and
translation, which have been appreciated centuries ago. In this paper
Hupka distinguishes nine basic types of visual illustration (i.e. single
illustrations, enumerating illustrations, sequential illustrations,
structural illustrations, functional illustrations, terminological
illustrations, scenic illustrations, diagrams, exemplary illustrations)
used exclusively for nouns included in dictionaries. Next, he exemplifies
them from important dictionaries of French, English and German. He also
includes selected extracts and fugues from entries to substantiate his
propositions and arguments.

In chapter 67 (pp. 391-404) HUANG Jianhua attempts briefly to present
recent Chinese achievements in metalexicographical studies and makes a
preliminary comparison between Chinese and Western research in this area.
Against the background of the long established lexicographic tradition of
China, the author surveys the metalexicographic achievements in terms of
specialized reviews, establishments of societies and associations,
publications of monographs in lexicography, national symposia or
colloquia, lexicography research centers and university courses in
lexicography. Finally, he gives specific details on some of the main
topics treated in the literature, and concludes with some reference to its
strengths and weaknesses.

In chapter 68 (pp. 405- 421) Bill Katz provides a lively historical
overview of both 'library science' and 'reference sources', from
preliterate reliance on word-of-mouth authority and marginal manuscript
glosses to today's IT-assisted libraries. Starting with the age of
difference he covers the Greek history of reference works, Renaissance
period, and from the Renaissance to the twentieth century and beyond. In
way of discussion, he shows how alphabetic order and thematic taxonomies
have been as important in the development of new genres of reference works
as printing, scientific enlightenment, democratic government and
industrialization. The number of specialized reference sources is
constantly rising, but massive information loads do not always guarantee
factual accuracy and objective knowledge. This has been instrumental
behind the establishment of academic and public reference services.

In chapter 69 (pp. 422- 428) Tom McArthur presents the case for
a 'reference science' that would overarch such activities as internet
links, associations of lexicographers and metalexicographers, as well as
teaching and research activities concerned with "the study of all aspects
of organizing data, information, and knowledge in any format whatever, for
any purpose whatever, using any materials whatever" (p. 424). A wider
framework like this might then cope with the current limitations in the
criticism, history, typology, and structure of reference works and will
allow more interdisciplinary contacts to develop in the process.

In chapter 70 (pp. 429-444) Reinhard R. K. Hartmann believes that contact
and hybridization rather than isolation and purity should be the norms in
the world of lexicography, since the more hybridization of the field more
has its chance to grow and flourish. Therefore, he pleads for open
boundaries to let insights through which might be missed by those stuck
inside disciplinary confines. The methodological tools of dictionary
research still need sharpening; they depend on the nature and purpose of
the inquiry. Links should be sought and cultivated with 'mother', 'sister'
and 'daughter' disciplines, whatever and wherever they may be.


Part 4 (chapter 47-54) beautifully illustrates the difficulties that arise
when we make efforts to classify dictionaries by various criteria related
to size, coverage, format, data collection, information layout, target
users, user requirements, languages involved, etc. We also observe a
tension here between the generalized effort to explain diversity and the
specific account of a particular (new or hybrid) type of reference work.

Part 8 (chapter 55-61) is particularly concerned with the issues of
structural representation of linguistic information of various types
(entry words, sub-entry, spelling, pronunciation, definitional meaning,
grammar, etymology, usage, synonyms, idioms, citation, etc.) within a
dictionary. The seven chapters included in this part deal with many of
these issues from structural view point revealing how systematic
presentation of the information makes a dictionary highly useful for the
target users. If we (as compilers and users) are able to understand how
lexicographic information works, we can present and access it more

Part 9 (chapter 62 to chapter 70) is devoted to the exploration of issues
within the wider context of lexicography to be considered as a 'reference
science'. The lexicographer, as a reference scientist, is expected to have
much understanding of the principles and methods of dictionary making, not
only within the realm of traditional lexicography but also of those
disciplines which often builds up relational interdependence with it. In
fact, not a single subject of human knowledge can ignore the importance of
lexicography fir its overall growth and development. Similarly,
lexicography, for its maturity as a field of reference science, cannot
probably deny its debt to other disciplines.


Hartmann, R. R. K. (Ed.) (1983) Lexicography: Principles and Practice.
London: Academic Press.

Hartmann, R. R. K. (2001) Teaching and Researching Lexicography. Harlow:
Longman/Pearson Education.

Ilson, R. F. (Ed.) (1986) Lexicography: An Emerging International
Profession. Manchester: Manchester University Press.

James, G. (Ed.) (1989 Lexicographers and Their Works. Exeter: University
of Exeter Press.

Karpova, Olga M. (1994) Dictionaries of Shakespeare's Language: Historical-
Typological Research. Ivanovo: Ivanovo State University.

Landau, S. I. (2001) Dictionaries: The Art and Craft of Lexicography. 2nd
Edition. New York: Cambridge University Press.

McArthur, Tom (1998) Living Words, Language, Lexicography and the
knowledge revolution. Exeter: University of Exeter Press.

Norri, Juhani (2000) "Labelling of derogatory words in some British and
American dictionaries". International Journal of Lexicography. 13(2):71-

Sinclair, J. M. (Ed.) (1987) Looking Up: An Account of the COBUILD
Project. London: Collins ELT.


Dr. Niladri Sekhar Dash works in the area of corpus linguistics and corpus-
based language research and application at Indian Statistical Institute,
Kolkata, India. His research interest includes corpus linguistics,
lexicography, lexicology, and lexical semantics. His recent book (Corpus
Linguistics and Language Technology, New Delhi, Mittal Publications, 2005)
has addressed, besides other things of corpus linguistics, the issue of
corpus use in lexicographic works in Indian languages. Presently he is
working on corpus-based dictionary making, lexical polysemy, and corpus-
based machine translation in Indian languages.

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