summary responses to Spanish gender (9.1567)
|Author:||Maria Jose Alvarez-Torres|
|Submitter Email:||click here to access email|
In response to my question regarding sources for Spanish grammatical
gender and the tendency of word endings toward the masculine or
I need to clarify that my question was related to the identification of
sources which have done a count on the frequency (%) in which noun
endings (particularly the so-called arbitrary suffixes) have a tendency
toward the masculine or the feminine gender. My only source at that
moment was Bull (1965) who presents a list of noun endings in Spanish
and a numerical count of words that either assign masculine or feminine
gender (or ambivalent), based on E.B. William's Spanish & English
Some respondants were very much amazed by my inquiry, because it seemed
that I was looking for sources where some gender rules were stated;
obviously this information can be easily found in any Spanish grammar
reference manual or dictionary. I am very thankful for all responses
and apologize for not having stated my question clearly enough.
Here is a list of sources suggested by respondants:
Greenberg, Joseph, H., 1966. "Language universal with special
reference to feature hierarchies. The Hague: Mounton & CO.
Harris, James. W. 1991. The exponence of gender in Spanish. Linguistic
Inquiry 22: 27-62.
Klein, Philip. 1989. Spanish 'gender' vowels and lexical
representation. Hispanic Linguistics 3: 147-162.
Roca, Iggy. 1989. The organization of grammatical gender. Transactions
of the Philological Society 87: 1-32.
Teschner and Russel. 1984. The gender patterns of Spanish nouns:An
inverse dictionary-based analysis. Hispanic Linguistics 1: 115-132.
Whitley, Stanley. 1986. Spanish English contrast: a course in Spanish
linguistics. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press.
Other related readings:
Butt, J & Benjamin, C. 1994. A new reference grammar of modern
Spanish. London, England: Edward Arnold.
Castillo, C. & Bond, O.F. 1977. The University of Chicago Spanish
Dictionary. Third Edition. New York: Pocket Books.
Lang, M. F. Spanish word formation : productive derivational
morphology in the modern lexis. London ; New York : Routledge, 1990.
Real Academica Espanhola. 1982. Esbozo de una Nueva Gramatica de la
Lengua Espanola. Madrid: Espasa Calpe.
Rigault, A. Les marques du genre.1968. In Le francais dans le monde,
Surridge, M. 1993. Gender assignment in French. International Review
of Applied Linguistics, 31,
Maria Jose Alvarez-Torres
Department of English
Michigan State University
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