Negotiation in interaction
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Some weeks ago I asked for hints on articles, studies,
books etc. focussing on "the multiple, often implicit or
covert negotiations that run parallel to every verbal and
nonverbal interaction; e. g. negotiations about floor
access, topic selection, contextual assumptions,
conversational goals ..."
Thanks to the not too many who responded. As one might
have expected, Alan Firth (ed), The Discourse of
Negotiation, Pergamon Press, 1995, was the most frequently
suggested (including the editor himself).
The following list might well serve as a basic reading
list for PRAGMA 99 (International Pragmatics Conference to
take place in June 1999 at Tel Aviv and Jerusalem), which
has the pragmatics of negotiation as its main theme. The
order is from very general to very specific.
(1) Philip Franz Seitz <email@example.com> stressed
Erving Goffman's "most crucial intellectual contribution to
understanding the social aspect of human communicative
behavior" and recommended in particular:
Goffman, Erving 1963: Behavior in Public Places. New
York: The Free Press. 1969: Strategic Interaction.
Philadelphia: The University of Pennsylvania Press. 1981:
Forms of Talk. Philadelphia: The University of
(2) Maurice Nevile <Maurice.Nevile@anu.edu.au> , whose
special interest is in the language of airline pilots, and
'negotiation' of, for example, error/doubt and the roles
and identities of participants in aviation. He wrote: "
Naturally much of the writing of in CA could be construed
as 'negotiation' [...] Firth has a number of papers in
which negotiation is used in the sense you mean, as well
as others which use it in the way it is usually thought
of. I'd also consider texts on 'self' such as Malone, or
roles such as Wortham. As you mention the word 'activity'
I also thought of papers considering negotiation in the
performance of teams working towards some task-oriented
goal, such as Goodwin and Hutchins."
Malone, M. (1997) Worlds of talk: the presentation of self
in everyday conversation. Cambridge: Polity Press.
Firth, A. (ed.) [see above]
Goodwin, C. (1995) Seeing in depth. Social Studies of
Science, 25:237-274. (1996) Transparent vision. In Ochs,
E., Schegloff, E.A., and S.A. Thompson (eds), pp.370-404.
Hutchins, E. (1990) The technology of team navigation. In
Galegher, J. et al (eds). (1991) The social organization of
distributed cognition. In Resnick, L.B. et al (eds).
Wortham, S.E.F. (1994) Acting out participant examples in
the classroom. Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Benjamins.
(1996) Mapping participant deictics: a technique for
discovering speakers' footing. Journal of Pragmatics,
Galegher, J., Kraut, R.E. and C. Egido (eds) (1990)
Intellectual teamwork: social and technological
foundations of cooperative work. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence
Resnick, L.B., Levine, J.M. and S.D. Teasley (eds) (1991)
Perspectives on socially shared cognition. Washington DC:
American Psychological Association.
Ochs, E., Schegloff, E.A., and S.A. Thompson (eds) (1996)
Interaction and grammar. Cambridge: Cambridge University
(3) Arthur Merin <arthur@IMS.Uni-Stuttgart.DE> brought to
my attention two relevant papers of his:
Algebra of Elementary Social Acts. In S.L. Tsohatzidis
(ed.) Foundations of Speech Act Theory. London: Routledge,
Communicative Action as Bargaining: Utility, Relevance,
Elementary Social Acts. In D. Traum (ed.) Working Papers
from the AAAI 1997 Fall Symposium on Communicative Action,
Cambridge MA. AAAI: Menlo Park, 1997.
(4) Mai Kuha <firstname.lastname@example.org>
http://php.indiana.edu/~mkuha/home.html who found herself
in a situation similar to mine a few years ago ("pretty
annoying to wade through all the articles on business
negotiation that come up when you search for "negotation"
in journal indexes!"), suggested
Roulet, Eddy. 1992. "On the Structure of Conversation as
Negotiation." In _(On) Searle on Conversation._ Amsterdam
and Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 91-99. (This volume is
presented as co-authored by "John R. Searle et al.", rather
than edited by them.)
Stein, Nancy L., Ronan S. Bernas, and David J. Calicchia.
1997. "Conflict Talk: Understanding and Resolving
Arguments." In T. Givon (ed) _Conversation: Cognitive,
Communicative and Social Perspectives._ Amsterdam: John
Benjamins. 233-67. [Goals: "to investigate the ways in
which two people resolve differences of opinion during an
argument, to describe the conflict talk associated with
different argument outcomes and to explore the content of
argument memories when the outcome of an argument varies"
(5) Anita Fetzer <email@example.com> has
investigated negotiation from a context-oriented
perspective: "Context is analysed within a
presupposition-approach to discourse based on the
contextualization of Juergen Habermas's approach to
communication and his concept of validity claim
(Geltungsanspruch). Validity claims are anchored to a
tripartite system of objective, social and subjective
worlds and their respective subsystems. These
contextualized validity claims [...] are OPEN FOR
NEGOTIATION, i.e they are either accepted (plus-validity
claim) or rejected (minus-validity claim. In principle,
any pragmatic / contextual presupposition can be
negotiated" - the interpersonal presuppositions:
face-wants, face-needs of participants; participation
format - the interactional presuppositions: adjacency
pairs / relations / positions; sequential organization -
the textual presuppositions: Gricean CP & conversational
implicature. However, the respective presuppositions have
to be made explicit first. Some references:
Fetzer, Anita. Negative Interaktionen: kommunikative
Strategien im britischen Englisch und interkulturelle
Inferenzen. Frankfurt/Main: Peter Lang. 1994
- --- Recontextualizing context. In ECCS '97. Conference
proceedings. European conference on cognitive science.
April 9-11, 1997. Manchester U.K., 176-180
- --- Negative contextualization: a socio-semiotic
approach to language teaching. In Puetz, Martin. ed. The
cultural context in foreign language teaching. Frankfurt:
Peter Lang. 85-109. 1997
- --- Contextualization in a German-English context:
face-wants /needs and information-wants/ needs. In Raasch,
Albert.ed. Language teaching to adults
- --- Mehr-sprachl.-Material versus
weniger-sprachl.-Material: Zur Kontextualisierungspotenz
fuer Zurueckweisungen. Fremdsprachen und Hochschule 52, 1998,
- --- Polite rejections: teaching interpersonal
communication skills. In Dakowska, Maria.ed. English in the
modern world. 1998
- --- NEIN-SAGEN. In Pittner, Robert & Karin Pittner. eds.
Beitraege zu Sprache & Sprachen, 5. Muenchner Linguistik
Tage. Muenchen: Lincom Europa. 1998
- --- Validity claims: assigning contextual information. In
T.D. Wilson & D. Allen eds. Information seeking in
context: proceedings of the 2nd ISIC conference, Sheffield,
1998. Taylor Graham Publishing: London 1998
- --- Challenging the unspoken: exploiting the ideology in
and of political interviews. In Verschueren, Jeff. ed.
Procceedings of the 6th International congress of
Pragmatics. To appear
- --- Kontextualisierung im nicht-praeferierten Format. In
Pittner, Robert & Karin Pittner. eds. Beitraege zu Sprache &
Sprachen, 6. Muenchner Linguistik Tage. Muenchen: Lincom
Europa. To appear
- --- 'Put bluntly, you have something of a credibility
problem. Sincerity and credibility in political
interviews. In Chilton, Paul und Christina Schaeffner. eds.
Analysing political discourse. To appear
- --- NO THANKS: a socio-semiotic approach. In Hirsch,
Richard. ed. Cultural Semiotics. To appear
- --- Negotiating rejections: a micro-cultural analysis.
In Thije, Jan & Kristin Buehrig. eds. Beyond
misunderstanding: the linguistic reconstruction of
intercultural discourse. To appear
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