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Summary Details


Query:   Re: Q's 15.44 Hale reference
Author:  Donna Lardiere
Submitter Email:  click here to access email
Linguistic LingField(s):   Morphology

Summary:   I asked whether anyone could identify the languages described in a Hale(1996, p. 729) commentary on Epstein, Flynn & Martohardjono (1996) quoted below.

(1) ''Add the suffix -sh to animate nouns to form the dual and plural, add the same suffix to inanimates to form the singular and dual.''

Many thanks to Martha McGinnis, Douglas Dee and especially Thomas Hanke, who identified it as Jemez (Kiowa-Tanoan family). Hanke pointed me to the following source in Corbett's (2000) _Number_:

p. 159f, footnote 28: ''The related language Jemez has a comparable but interestingly different system of number marking of nouns (Kenneth Hale 1956-57 and p.c.), as the table shows. In Jemez the inverse marker marks the dual, together with either plural or singular (depending on the noun, in the main animates follow the first pattern and inanimates the second). ''

Douglas Dee also referred me to Mithun (1999, p. 81) _The Languages of Native North America_ for a description of Jemez.

(2) ''In cardinality DPs, with numerals from 3 through 10, use the feminine for a masculine noun, and vice versa, and use the plural form of the noun; with numerals from 11 through 19, use the singular accusative for the noun, and for the teen subpart of the numeral, use feminine for a feminine, and for the unit subpart of the numeral, use feminine for masculine and vice versa.''

Thanks to Stefan Dienst and again to Thomas Hanke who suggested Modern Standard Arabic and classical Arabic, respectively. Hanke referred me to the following source, from Hetzron (ed.): _The Semitic Languages_:
p. 154: ''while many numerals (3-10, 13-19, 23-29, etc.) exhibit a kind of reverse agreement (polarity), taking a feminine ending with masculine counted nouns [...] and vice versa [...]'' and
p.198, for classical Arabic: ''after the numbers from 11 to 19 in the accusative singular: [...] There is no distinction in gender in the tens, hundreds, and thousands.''

Thanks very much!
Donna Lardiere

LL Issue: 15.291
Date Posted: 23-Jan-2004
Original Query: Read original query


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