Influence of L2 on L1
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On March 12 I posted an inquiry about the influence of L2 on L1. I
reported that the results of an experiment I had conducted with several
colleagues indicate that development of fluency in English (L2) may have a
very significant influence on how native speakers of Japanese interpret
certain Japanese words (L1). I presented the few citations of relevant
research I was able to find on the Internet and requested information on
other relevant publications. The complete text of my inquiry may be viewed
at the following address:
The following people sent valuable information and/or comments (listed in
Thanks very much to all.
From Elenor Batchelder I received an inquiry regarding the language of the
survey. This this I responded that the survey was bilingual and the order
of the Japanese and English was reversed in half of the cases to prevent
From Adrienne Bruyn I learned that Sarah Thomason ''presents some
anecdotical evidence of interference from the later acquired language into
the primary native language (involving lexicon, phonology/accent, and also
grammatical constructions)'' in the following book:
>Thomason, Sarah G. 2001. Language Contact. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University
She also introduced the following chapter
>Thomason, Sarah G. 1997. 'On mechanisms of interference'. Eliasson, Stig &
>Ernst Hakon Jahr (eds.), Language and its ecology. Essays in memory of
>Einar Haugen. Berlin & New York: Mouton de Gruyter, pp. 181-207.
and pointed out that ''Thomason mentions that [the phenomenon is] seldomly
discussed in the language contact literature.''
This and other responses I received confirmed my initial impression that
influence of L2 on L1 is a fairly new area of study. Fortunately,
however, interest in the phenomenon has increased dramatically in recent
years. Vivian Cook pointed out that she recently helped to organize a
colloquium on the topic called ''Putting transfer in reverse: changes in the
first language of second language users'':
She also included the following list of references:
>Bialystok, E. (2001) Bilingualism in Development. Cambridge: Cambridge
>Cenoz, J. & Genesee, F. (eds.) (1998) Beyond Bilingualism: Multilingualism
>and Multilingual Education. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters
>Cook, V.J. (in press) (ed.) Portraits of the L2 User. Clevedon:
>Cook, V.J. (ed). to appear Effects of the Second Language on the First.
>Clevedon: Multilingual Matters
>Cushner, K. & Brislin, R.W. (1996) Intercultural Interactions: a Practical
>Guide. Thousand Oaks: Sage
>Grosjean, F. (2001) The bilingual$B%f(Bs language modes. In J.L. Nicol (ed.)
>One Mind, Two Languages: Bilingual Language Processing (pp. 1-22). Oxford:
>Herdina, P. & Jessner, U. (2002) A Dynamic Model of Multilingualism:
>Changing the Psycholinguistic Perspective. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters
>Kecskes, I. & Papp, T. (2000), Foreign Language and Mother Tongue.
>Jenkins, J. (2000) The Phonology of English as an International Language.
>Oxford: Oxford University Press
>Macaro, E. (1997) Target Language, Collaborative Learning and Autonomy.
>Clevedon: Multilingual Matters
>Phillipson, R. (1992) Linguistic Imperialism. Oxford: Oxford University Press
>Satterfield, T. (1999) Bilingual Selection of Syntactic Knowledge.
>Weinreich, U. (1953) Languages in Contact. The Hague: Mouton
In addition, she graciously included the table of contents to her forth
coming _Portraits of the L2 User_:
>1 Jasone Cenoz, University of the Basque Country: Crosslinguistic
>interaction in multilinguals: a pragmatic perspective
>2 Istvan Kecskes and Tunde Papp, SUNY at Albany: How to measure the
>effects of L2 on L1
>3 Ulrike Jessner, University of Innsbruck: A dynamic approach to language
>attrition in multilinguals
>4 Pat Balcom, Universite de Moncton: Cross-linguistic influence in the
>bilingual lexicon: middle constructions in English and French
>5 Teresa Satterfield, University of Michigan: Syntactic economy as the
>impetus for transfer
>6 Vivian Cook, Elisabet Iarossi, Nektarios Stellakis & Yuki Tokumaru,
>Effects of the Second Language on the syntactic processing of the First
>7 Scott Jarvis, Ohio: Probing the limits of L2 effects in the L1: A case study
>8 Jean-Marc Dewaele, Birkbeck College: Productivity and lexical richness
>in monolingual and bilingual speech production'
>9 Aneta Pavlenko, Temple University: L2 influence on L1 in narrat-ives of
>10 Batia Laufer, University of Haifa: L2 effect on the decline of L1
>lexical competence: misuse of collocations and non use of infrequent
>11 Victoria Murphy and Karen Pine, University of Herts: Effects of L2
>learning on L1 processing and representations in bilingual children.
>12 Graeme Porte, Universidad de Granada: How L1 attrition affects code
>mixing in the mother-tongue output of long-term resident overseas EFL
Moreover, she informed me that she is the organizer of and a contributor to
a panel entitled ''Bilingual Cognition'' (which will also deal with L2
influence on L1) to be held at EUROSLA 2002, Basel:
Sylviane Granger pointed out that the following book is relevant in that it
is THE reference book on transfer, although it may not deal specifically
with L2 influence on L1:
>Language transfer : cross-linguistic influence in language learning /
>Cambridge ; New York : Cambridge University Press, 1989
Finally, from Istvan Kecskes, I learned that he and his wife have recently
published a book that discusses the topic:
>Kecskes, I. & Tunde Papp. 2000. ''Foreign Language and Mother Tongue''.
>Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
The following reviews of this book are available:
>The English Teachers' Magazine, 2001. Vol. 50. No.2. (Tatsuhiko Toda,
>Kumamoto University, Japan)
>Applied Linguistics, 2001. Vol. 22. No.2 . 284-286 (Jean-Marc Dewaele,
>University of London, UK)
>TESOL Quarterly, 2001. Vol. 35. No.3 (Virginia LoCastro, Universidad de las
>TESL-EJ, 2001. Vol. 5. No.1. (Lola Gran, University of Valencia, Spain)
>Linguist List, Sept. 13. 2000 (Ingrid Pillar, University of Sydney,
>American Journal of Psychology, 2002. Vol. 115. No. 1 (Judith Rosenthal,
He also mentioned the following articles he has written on the topic:
>Kecskes, I. & Tunde Papp. 2000. ''Metaphorical Competence in
>TrilingualLanguage Production''. In Jasone Cenoz & Ulrike Jessner (eds.)
>''Acquisition of English as a Third Language''. Clevedon: Multilingual
>Kecskes, I. 1998. ''The State of L1 Knowledge in Foreign Language
>Learners''. WORD (Journal of the International Linguistics Association).
>Vol. 49. No.3: 321-340
Thanks again to all for your invaluable assistance.
Kumamoto Gakuen University
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