References: Optional Word Omission, That-omission
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Regarding query: http://www.linguistlist.org/issues/16/16-3525.html#2
Thanks to everyone who send me comments on the literature on that-omission
(pls, send me more if you still find more).
− Louise McNally
− Rena Torres Cacoullos
− John Lawler
− Wayles Brown
− Peyton Todd
I have split up the references into four categories: that-omission in (to
the best of my knowledge)
− Complement clauses: [5, 8, 9, 21-23, 27, 28]
− Non-subject-extracted relative clauses: [1-3, 7, 10-12, 16-20, 24-26, 29,
− Subject-extracted relative/contact clauses: [1, 6, 7]
− Both complement and relative clause: [4, 13-15, 31]
I am sure there is much more on the variationist/sociolinguistic side of
things. Tagliamonte et al. 2005 contains a lot of references in that
direction. Bolinger 1972 contains references to older work (yes, I should
have mentioned that I was aware of Bolinger's work ;-)). If there were
several papers by the same author(s) on the same issue, I have listed the
most recent one. Thanks again for all the helpful information.
 Adamson, D. H. (1992). Social and Processing Constraints on Relative
Clauses. American Speech, 67(2).
 Bergh, G., & Seppaenen, A. (2000). Preposition stranding with
wh-relatives: a historical survey. English Language and Linguistics, 4(2),
 Biber, D., Johansson, S., Leech, G., Finegan, E., & Conrad, S. (1999).
Longman grammar of spoken and written English. London: Longman.
 Bolinger, D. (1972). That's that. The Hague: Mouton.
 Cacoullos, R. T., & Walker, J. A. (submitted). On the Persistence of
Grammar in Discourse Formulas: A Variationist Study of that. Linguistics.
 Doherty, C. (2000). Clauses Without 'That': The Case for Bare
Sentential Complementation in English. New York: Garland.
 Engdahl, E. (1997). Relative Clause Extractions in Context. Working
Papers in Scandinavian Syntax, 60, 51-79.
 Ferreira, V. S. (2003). The persistence of optional complementizer
production: Why saying ''that'' is not saying ''that'' at all. Journal of
Memory and Language, 48, 379-398.
 Ferreira, V. S., & Dell, G. S. (2000). Effect of Ambiguity and Lexical
Availability on Syntactic and Lexical Production. Cognitive Psychology, 40,
 Fox, B. A., & Thompson, S. A. (in press). Relative Clauses in English
conversation: Relativizers, Frequency and the notion of Construction.
Studies in Language.
 Hakes, D. T., & Cairns, H. S. (1970). Sentence comprehension and
relative pronouns. Perception & Psychophysics, 8, 5-8.
 Hakes, D. T., & Foss, D. J. (1970). Decision Processes during sentence
comprehension: Effects of surface structure reconsidered. Perception &
Pychophysics, 8(6), 413-416.
 Hawkins, J. A. (2001). Why are categories adjacent? Journal of
Linguistics, 37, 1-34.
 Hawkins, J. A. (2004). Efficiency and Complexity in Grammars. Oxford:
Oxford University Press.
 Huddleston, R., & Pullum, G. K. (2002). The Cambridge Grammar of the
English Language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
 Jaeger, T. F. (2005). Optional that indicates production difficulty:
Evidence from disfluencies. Paper presented at the DiSS'05,
 Jaeger, T. F., Levy, R., Wasow, T., & Orr, D. (2005). Optional that is
predictable if a relative clause is predictable. AMLaP 2005, Ghent, Belgium.
 Jaeger, T. F., & Wasow, T. (2005). Processing as the Source of
Accessibility Effects on Variation. Paper presented at the Berkeley
 Lohse, B. (2000). Zero versus Explicit Marking in Relative
Clauses.Unpublished manuscript, Dept of Linguistics, University of Southern
 Quirk, R. (1957). Relative clauses in educated spoken English. English
Studies, 38, 97-109.
 Race, D. S., & MacDonald, M. C. (2003). The use of ''that'' in the
production and comprehension of object relative clauses. Paper presented at
the 26th CogSci.
 Rohdenburg, G. (1998). Clausal complementation and cognitive
complexity in English. Paper presented at the Anglistentag, Erfurt, Germany.
 Roland, D., Elman, J. L., & Ferreira, V. S. (2005). Why is that?
Structural prediction and ambiguity resolution in a very large corpus of
English sentences. Cognition.
 Sigley, R. J. (1997). Choosing your relatives: Relative clauses in New
Zealand English. Victoria University, Wellington.
 Tagliamonte, S., Smith, J., & Lawrence, H. (2005). No taming the
vernacular! Insights from the relatives in northern Britain. Language
Variation and Change, 17, 75-112.
 Temperley, D. (2003). Ambiguity avoidance in English relative clauses.
Language, 79(3), 464-484.
 Thompson, S. A., & Mulac, A. (1991). The discourse conditions for the
use of complementizer that in conversational English. Journal of
Pragmatics, 15, 237- 251.
 Thompson, S. A., & Mulac, A. (Eds.). (1991). A Quantitative
Perspective on the Grammaticization of Epistemic Parentheticals in English.
Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
 Tottie, G. (1995). The man Ø I love: an analysis of factors favouring
zero relatives in written British and American English. In G. Melchers & B.
Warren (Eds.), Studies in Anglistics (pp. 201-215). Stockholm: Almqvist and
 Tottie, G. (Ed.). (1997). Relatively speaking: relativizer marker
usage in the British National Corpus. Helsinki: Société Néophilologique.
 Walter, M. A., & Jaeger, T. F. (2005). Constraints on Optional that
Omission: A Strong Lexical OCP Effect. Paper presented at the CSL 41, Chicago.
 Wasow, T., Jaeger, T. F., & Orr, D. (in progress). Lexical Variation
in Relativizer Frequency. Paper presented at the Expecting the unexpected:
Exceptions in Grammar Workshop at the 27th Annual Meeting of the German
Linguistic Association, Cologne.
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